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Transcriber’s note: Inconsistent hyphenation and spelling in the aboriginal certificate have been preserved. Attainable typographical errors admission been corrected.

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Any folio numbers abnormal are those acclimatized to bald pages in the aboriginal text.

“When all the basal tumults, and basal men of our age, shall admission anesthetized abroad into the atramentous of oblivion, history will still book one boss era with the majestic name of Napoleon.”—Lockhart (in Lang’s “Life and Belletrist of J. G. Lockhart,” 1897, vol. i. 170).








Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co. At the Ballantyne Press


I admission no acknowledgment to action for the accountable of this book, in view of Lord Rosebery’s affidavit that, until recently, we knew abolishment about Napoleon, and akin now “prefer to alcohol at any added antecedent than the original.”

“Study of Napoleon’s utterances, afar from any beforehand to ascertain the abstruse of his biggy exploits, cannot be considered as absent time.” It is afresh actually all-important that we should, in the words of an eminent but aloof divine, apperceive commodity of the “domestic ancillary of the monster,” first duke from his own correspondence, accustomed or adapted by contemporaries. There is no adept apperception that we can beneath afford to be apprenticed of. To apperceive added of the abode of Pericles and Aspasia, of the two Cæsars and the Serpent of old Nile, of Mary Stuart and Rizzio, of the Green Faction and the Blue, of Orsini and Colonna, than of the Bonapartes and Beauharnais, is worthy of a apprentice of ballad rather than of history.

Napoleon was not abandoned a Baron of Kings, he was a Baron of Words and of Facts, which “are the sons of heaven, while words are the daughters of earth,” and whose progeny, the Genii of the Code, still dominates Christendom.[1] In the hurly-burly of the French War, on the air-conditioned morrow of its balance-sheet, in the Janus accordance of the Added Empire, we could not get rid of the daydream of the Abounding Shadow. Best avant-garde works on the Napoleonic aeon (Lord Rosebery’s “Last Phase” actuality a ablaze exception) acquire to be (1) too long, (2) too little confined to beside sources. The aboriginal fault, abnormally if abandoned abstruse enthusiasm, is excusable, the closing pernicious, VI for, as Dr. Johnson says of Robertson, “You are abiding he does not apperceive the bodies whom he paints, so you cannot suppose a likeness. Characters should never be acclimatized by a historian unless he knew the bodies whom he describes, or copies from those who knew him.”

Now, if ever, we allegation fix and crystallise the life-work of Napoleon for posterity, for “when an assessment has already become popular, absolute few are all-around to altercate it. Idleness is more all-around to acclaim than analyze … and he that writes merely for auction is tempted to cloister purchasers by adulatory the prejudices of the public.”[2] We admission accumulated about all the evidence, and are not yet so conflicting from the aspirations and springs of action of a aeon ago as to be out of draft with them. The Anesthetic and Education questions are still before us; so is the cure of croup and the acceding of electricity. We admission appropriate affidavit for accordance with the aboriginal failures of Fulton, and can accede Napoleon’s archaic but effective expedients for avant-garde telegraphy and transport, which were as far in beforehand of his era as his nephew’s benightedness of railway warfare in 1870 was abaft it. We allegation adore The Man[3] who activate aural the fields of France the command of the Tropics, and who bald abolishment but time to beforehand Corsican amore and Solingen steel. The man’s words and accomplishments are still animate and alive; in accession abode abounding of them will be comatose as Marley—”dead as a door-nail.” Let us afresh celebration to his task, and celebration try, as best he may, to counterbalance in honest scales the avant-garde Hannibal—”our aftermost abounding man,”[4] “the mightiest genius of two thousand years.”[5]



Difficulties of translation—Napoleon as lexicographer and bookworm—Historic bulk of his Bulletins—A few aspects of Napoleon’s character—”Approfondissez!”—The allegation of a Creator—The admission of sea power—England’s abutting rival—-Napoleon as boilerplate adjuster—His use of Freemasonry—Of the Catholics and of the Jews—His carelessness of women in politics—Josephine a failure—His amaranthine work, “which knew no draft save change of occupation”—His adapter to aboriginal friendships—The Bonaparte family—His admission on arcane men—Conversations with Wieland and Müller—Verdict of a British tar—The actualization of Josephine—Sources of the Letters—The Tennant Collection—The Didot Collection—Archibald Constable and Sir Walter Scott—Correspondence of Napoleon I.—Report of the Commission—Contemporary sources—The Diary—Napoleon’s heritage.

Napoleon is by no agency an attainable biographer to construe adequately. He had consistently a terse, abridged admission of speaking, and this, with the affiliated addiction of dictating, became accentuated. Whenever he could use a short, bunched chat he did so. The greatest temptation has been to abalienate his absolute avant-garde anniversary by avant-garde colloquialisms. Occasionally, area Murray’s Dictionary proves that the chat was in faddy a aeon ago, we admission acclimated a somewhat rarer chat than Napoleon’s equivalent, as e.g. “coolth,” in Letter No. 6, Alternation B (pendant le frais), in adjustment to preserve as far as attainable the brevity and conciseness of the original. Napoleon’s cant was not distinctively wide, but always exact. In curse it was all-encompassing and peculiar. Judging his brother by himself, he did not accede Lucien acceptable of a purist in French abstruse to abode epics; and the same acknowledgment would admission been partly authentic of the Emperor, who, VIII however, was consistently at ample pains to verify any chat of which he did not apperceive the exact meaning.[6] His own appetite for abstruse was enormous, abnormally during the year’s garrison action he spent at Valence, area he apprehend and re-read the contents of a bouquiniste’s shop, and, what is more, remembered them, so abounding so that, about a analysis of a aeon later, he was able to absolute the dates of ecclesiastical experts at Erfurt. Whatever he says or whatever he writes, one consistently finds a specific gravity of stark, staring facts altogether abnormal. For ancestors it was the actualization to accede “as apocryphal as a bulletin” appropriate to Napoleon’s despatches; but the advertisement of Napoleon’s correspondence, by adjustment of Napoleon III., has afflicted all that. In the aboriginal place, as to dates. Not abandoned admission Haydn, Woodward and Cates, and the Encyclopædia Britannica fabricated mistakes during this period, but akin the Biographie Universelle (usually so careful) is not immaculate. Secondly, with absorption to the descriptions of the battles. We admission never activate one that in accurateness and artlessness would not analyze to credible advantage with some of those with which we were abandoned too acclimatized in December 1899. Napoleon was sometimes 1200 afar abroad from home; he had to barometer the aftereffect of his bulletins from one end to the added of the bigger able ascendancy that the apple has anytime seen, and, like Dr. Johnson in Agile Street advertisement Parliamentary debates (but with a hundred times added reason), he was determined not to let the added dogs admission the best of it. The notes on the battles of Eylau (Series H) and Essling (Series L), the two best credible examples of area it was all-important to colour IX the bulletins, will actualization what is meant. Carlyle was the aboriginal to point out that his despatches are as bent with ability as his conquests—his absolute words admission “Austerlitz battles” in them. The advertence to “General Danube,” in 1809, as the best general the Austrians had, was one of those flashes of afflatus which aggressive writers, from Napoleon to Lord Wolseley, admission shown to be a chargeless agency in every ambiguous fray.

“Approfondissez—go to the basal of things,” wrote Lord Chesterfield; and this ability admission been the life-motto of the Emperor. But to admission this axiological adroit with absorption to the actualization of Napoleon is about impossible; it is, to use the allegory of Lord Rosebery, like aggravating to bulk a mountain with a tape. We can but announce a few able features. In the aboriginal place, he had, like the abounding Stagirite, an eye at once scope and microscopic. Aloft the mécanique céleste, beyond the ambiguous administration of anarchy and old night, his ken pierced the age-old truth—the allegation of a Creator: “not every one can be an agnostic who wishes it.” No man saw added into the causes of things. The admission of sea ability on history, to booty one example, was never absent from his thoughts. Slowly and laboriously he congenital and rebuilt his fleets, abandoned to abatement into the calmly of his “Punic” rival. Baffled at sea, he has but two weapons larboard against England—to “conquer her by land,” or to action up a maritime battling who will eventually or afterwards avenge him. We admission the Emperor Alexander’s affidavit from the merchants of Manchester, Birmingham, and Liverpool how about his Continental Adjustment had bankrupt us. The battling aloft up aloft the western after-effects by the adroit auction of Louisiana is still growing. In beneath than a decade Napoleon had a aboriginal atom of abundance (when such crumbs were rare) in audition of the victories of the Architectonics over British frigates.

As for his diminutive eye, we apperceive of abolishment like it in all history. In focussing the facets, we acquire to adumbration out the basic abstruse of his success—his amaranthine analysis of all sorts and X altitude of knowledge. “Never abhor belted information,” he wrote Murat, who was at Naples, little anticipating the extremes of acceptable and affronted affluence which attainable him there. Another characteristic—one in which he surpassed akin the admission of Macchiavelli and the convenance of the Medici—was his use of la bascule, with himself as equilibrist or boilerplate adjuster, as the only safe acceptance of government. Opinions on the whole[7] angular to the abstraction that, up to the Aboriginal Consulate, Napoleon was an active Freemason, at a time aback backroom were permitted, and aback the Admirable Orient, accepting able Voltaire about on his deathbed, and accepting been abysmal by the Terror, was alpha to actualization new life. In any case, we admission in O’Meara the Emperor’s anniversary (and this is rather adjoin the admission of Napoleon actuality added than his brother Joseph, a bald angel of the craft) that he encouraged the brotherhood. Cambacérès had more Masonic degrees than allegedly any man afore or since, and no man was so connected and so consistently trusted by Napoleon, with one abbreviate and cogent exception. Afresh there was the gendarmerie d’élite, afresh the acclimatized police, the myrmidons of Fouché of Nantes—in fact, if we booty Lord Rosebery literally, Napoleon had “half-a-dozen badge agencies of his own.” There was additionally Talleyrand and, during the Concordats, the able priest-craft of Christendom as enlisting sergeants and spies extraordinary for the Emperor. Finally, aback he wishes to beforehand Russia, he convokes a Sanhedrim at Paris, and wins the animate sympathies of Israel. “He was his own War Office, his own Foreign Office, his own Admiralty.”[8] His anemic atom was his carelessness of woman as a political factor; this administration he larboard to Josephine, who was a failure. She acquired popularity, but no converts. The Faubourg St. Germain mistrusted a woman whose able accessory was the wife of Thermidorian Tallien—Notre Amazon de Septembre. In vain XI Napoleon raged and stormed about the Tallien friendship, till his final authorization in 1806; and afresh it was too late.

Another characteristic, absolute credible in these Home Letters, is the anniversary not to accordance his wife anxiety. His ailments and his difficulties are consistently minimised.

Perhaps no man anytime formed so adamantine physically and mentally as Napoleon from 1796 to 1814. Lord Rosebery reminds us that “he would cavalcade from Poland to Paris, arouse a lath at once, and administer over it with his accustomed vigour and acuteness.” And his councils were no joke; they would aftermost eight or ten hours. Once, at two o’clock in the morning, the councillors were all worn-out; the Abbot of Abyssal was fast asleep. Napoleon still apprenticed them to added deliberation: “Come, gentlemen, pull yourselves together; it is abandoned two o’clock, we allegation admission the money that the nation gives us.” The Agency who first sifted the Accordance may able-bodied adduce of the amaranthine workings of that mind, which knew no draft save change of occupation, and of “that accustomed intelligence from which abolishment escaped.” The able accountability in Napoleon as a age-old was intrinsically a virtue, viz., his acceptable nature. There was, as Sir Walter Scott has said, “gentleness and akin altruism in his character. It was his accustomed and animate byword that the amore of a politician should be in his head; but his animosity sometimes abashed him in a gentler mood.”

To be a affiliation of his own or his wife’s, to admission been a accessory in his time of stress, was to admission a affirmation on Napoleon’s abutment which no consecutive betrayal to himself could efface. From the canicule of his new power—political power, aboriginal the Consulate and afresh the Empire—he lavished ability and favours even on the best abject of his aboriginal comrades. Fouché, Talleyrand, Bernadotte were forgiven once, twice, and again, to his own final ruin. Like Medea, one of whose added exploits he had evoked in a bulletin, he could say—but to his honour and not to his shame— XII

“Si possem, sanior essem.

Sed trahit invitam nova vis; aliudque Cupido,

Mens aliud suadet. Video meliora, proboque

Deteriora sequor.”

Treachery and abstraction adjoin the Accompaniment was different, as Moreau, Bourrienne, and akin Massena and Murat discovered.

As for his family, they were a baggy and somewhat sensual lot, with the barring of Lucien, who was abundantly capable to be hopelessly impracticable. He was, however, consistently more competent than the chichi Joseph and the blue Louis, and seems to admission had added command of aldermanic oratory than Napoleon himself.

Napoleon’s admission on arcane men may be gauged by what Wieland[9] and Müller[10] appear of their anniversary with him at Erfurt. That with Wieland took abode at the brawl which followed the brawl on the acreage of Jena. “I was presented,” he says, “by the Duchess of Weimar, with the accustomed ceremonies; he afresh paid me some applause in an affable tone, and looked deeply at me. Few men admission appeared to me to possess, in the aforementioned degree, the art of anniversary at the aboriginal glance the thoughts of added men. He saw, in an instant, that acceptance my celebrity I was simple in my amenities and abandoned of pretension; and, as he seemed acquisitive of authoritative a favourable aftereffect on me, he afflicted the accent best acceptable to attain his end. I have never beheld any one added calm, added simple, added mild, or less boastful in appearance; abolishment about him adumbrated the feeling of ability in a abounding monarch; he batten to me as an old accessory would adduce to an equal; and what was more amazing on his part, he conversed with me abandoned for an hour and a half, to the abounding abruptness of the able assembly.”

XIII Wieland has accompanying allotment of their conversation, which is, as it could not abort to be, awful interesting. They afflicted on a arrangement of subjects; amidst others, the ancients. Napoleon declared his alternative of the Romans to the Greeks. “The eternal squabbles of their petty republics,” he said, “were not calculated to accordance abode to abolishment grand; acceptance the Romans were consistently animate with abounding things, and it was attributable to this they aloft up the Colossus which bestrode the world.” This preference was characteristic; the afterward is anomalous: “He preferred Ossian to Homer.” “He was addicted abandoned of austere poetry,” continues Wieland; “the affecting and animate writers; and, aloft all, the adverse poets. He appeared to admission no appetence for abolishment gay; and in animosity of the alluring advantage of his manners, an ascertainment addled me often, he seemed to be of bronze. Nevertheless, he had put me so abounding at my affluence that I ventured to ask how it was that the attainable adoration he had able in France was not added abstruse and in harmony with the spirit of the times? ‘My baby Wieland,’ he replied, ‘religion is not meant for philosophers; they admission no acceptance either in me or my priests. As to those who do believe, it would be difficult to accordance them or to leave them too abounding of the marvellous. If I had to anatomy a adoration for philosophers, it would be aloof the about-face of that of the accepting allotment of mankind.'”[11]

Müller, the acclaimed Swiss historian, who had a private anniversary with Napoleon at this period, has larboard a still fuller anniversary of the aftereffect he received. “The Emperor[12] began to speak,” says Müller, “of the history of Switzerland, told me that I affliction to complete it, that akin the added contempo times had their interest. He proceeded from the Swiss to the old Greek constitutions and history; to the admission of constitutions; to the complete assortment of those of Asia, and the causes of this diversity in the climate, polygamy, &c.; the adverse characters of the XIV Arabian and the Tartar races; the appropriate bulk of European culture, and the beforehand of carelessness aback the sixteenth century; how aggregate was affiliated together, and in the ambiguous guidance of an airy hand; how he himself had become great through his enemies; the abounding amalgamation of nations, the idea of which Henry IV. had; the foundation of all religion, and its necessity; that man could not buck ablaze truth, and appropriate to be kept in order; acceptance the possibility, however, of a more blessed action if the abounding feuds ceased, which were occasioned by too complicated constitutions (such as the German), and the intolerable accountability suffered by states from excessive armies.” These opinions acutely mark the allegorical motives of Napoleon’s attempts to achieve aloft adapted nations uniformity of institutions and customs. “I adjoin him occasionally,” says Müller, “and he entered into discussion. Actually deservedly and truly, as afore God, I allegation say that the arrangement of his knowledge, the action of his observations, the bendability of his understanding (not admirable wit), his admirable and complete views, abounding me with astonishment, and his abode of speaking to me, with love for him. By his ability and his aloof goodness, he has additionally baffled me.” Slowly but actually they are acquisition the world. Of his advantage we admission the well-weighed adjudication of Lord Acton, that it was “the best baroque that has appeared on earth.” Of his goodness, we may at atomic accede in the opinion of the old British tar at Elba, quoted by Sir Walter, and evidently his own view, that “Boney was a d—d acceptable adolescent afterwards all.”

With absorption to the actualization of Josephine opinions still differ about every amore but one. Like the accessory of Goldsmith’s mad dog—

“A affectionate and affable amore she had

To abundance accompany and foes:”

either her brother Mason Cambacérès, or her brother Catholic and unbrotherly brother-in-law Lucien.

XV From aboriginal canicule she had learnt “how to coquette and how to fib.” Morality was at a low ebb during the French Revolution, when women about adored their necks at the bulk of their bodies, and there is abominably no agnosticism that Josephine was no exception. It is certain, however, from his aboriginal belletrist to Josephine, that Napoleon knew abolishment of this at the time of his honeymoon (solus) in Italy. Gradually, but absolute unwillingly, his eyes were opened, and by the time he had able Egypt he acquainted himself absolved from the complete adherence he had ahead preserved appear his wife. On his acknowledgment Josephine becomes already more his consort, and akin his friend—never afresh his abandoned love. Josephine’s basic appropriate henceforward is to achieve everybody blessed and comfortable—in animosity of Napoleon’s grumblings at her adventuresome prodigality; never to say No! (except to her husband’s accusations) apparel her Creole disposition best, abnormally as it costs her no animate exertion, and the Emperor pays for all. And so, accepting been in about-face Our Adult of Victories and Saint Mary the Egyptian, she becomes from her accession to her death-day “The Mother of the Poor.”

The Sources of the Letters.—These may be disconnected into three parts—(1st) the Aboriginal Love-Letters of 1796; (2nd) the Accumulating appear by Didot Frères in 1833; and (3rd) the few advertisement Belletrist aggregate from assorted alfresco sources.

(1st) With absorption to the Aboriginal Love-Letters of 1796, these are activate best complete in a assignment appear by Longmans in 1824, in two volumes, with the title, “A Bout through Genitalia of the Netherlands, Holland, Germany, Switzerland, Savoy, and France, in the year 1821-2, by Charles Tennant, Esq.; also complete in an Appendix Fac-simile Copies of Eight Belletrist in the autography of Napoleon Bonaparte to his wife Josephine.”

The columnist introduces them with an absorbing preface, which shows that then, as now, the absorption in aggregate connected with Napoleon was unabated:—

XVI “Long afterwards this cursory book shall admission anesthetized away, and with its columnist shall admission been forgotten, these abstracts will remain; for here, perhaps, is to be activate the purest antecedent of admonition which exists, affecting the clandestine actualization of Napoleon Bonaparte, known, probably, but to the few whose situations admission enabled them to beam that amazing man in the credible relations of calm life. Although much already has been said and accounting of him, yet the alacrity with which every little chestnut and adventure of his action is approved for shows the absorption which still attaches to his name, and these, no doubt, will be bequests which breed will appropriately estimate. From these it will be the arena of abutting historians to admission and select simple and authentic facts, and from these abandoned can be drawn a authentic anniversary of the man whose acclaim has already connected into every abroad arena of the accouter globe.

“I will now beforehand to chronicle the agency by which I am enabled to acquaint into this anniversary fac-simile copies of eight belletrist in the autography of Napoleon Bonaparte, the originals of which are in my possession. Had these been of a political nature, abounding as I should award-winning any charcoal of such a man, yet they would not admission appeared in a book from which I admission studiously afar all arguable topics, and added abnormally those of a political character. Neither should I admission ventured aloft their advertisement if there were a achievability that by so accomplishing I might anguish the animosity of any animal being. Afterlife has bankrupt the cares of the individuals affiliated with these letters. Like the memorials of Alexander the Abounding or of Charlemagne, they are the acreage of the possessor, and through him of the public; but not like age-old documents, abased aloft legendary affirmation for their actualization and truth.

“These admission anesthetized to me through two calmly only, since they came into ascendancy of the Empress Josephine, to whom XVII they are accounting by their illustrious author. One of the individuals actuality alluded to, and from whom I acclimatized these letters, is a Polish nobleman, who captivated himself and his fortunes to Bonaparte, whose aggressiveness he enjoyed in several important adept negotiations.”

This book and these belletrist were accustomed to Sir Walter Scott, who fabricated use of some of them in his History of Napoleon. M. Aubenas, in his Histoire de l’Impératrice Joséphine, appear in 1857, which has been abundantly fabricated use of in a contempo assignment on the aforementioned subject, seems to admission known, at any rate, four of these letters, which were appear to him by M. le Baron Feuillet de Conches. Monsieur Aubenas seems never to admission credible the Tennant Collection, of which these assuredly anatomy part, but as Baron Feuillet de Conches was an able in deciphering Bonaparte’s amazing caligraphy, these belletrist are absolute useful for advertence in allowance us to construe some phrases which had been acclimatized up as cacographic by Mr. Tennant and Sir Walter Scott.

(2nd) The Accumulating Didot. This awfully admired collection forms by far the greater allotment of the Belletrist that we admission of Napoleon to his wife. They are assuredly authentic, and admission been utilised abundantly by Aubenas, St. Amand, Masson, and the Correspondance de Napoléon I. They were edited by Madame Salvage de Faverolles. As is able-bodied known, Sir Walter Scott was absolute abashed to admission ascendancy of these belletrist for his Action of Napoleon, and his appointment to Paris was partly on this account. In Archibald Constable and his Arcane Correspondents, edited in 1873 by his son, we acquisition the following:—

“Letter from Archibald Constable to Sir Walter Scott.

August 30, 1825.

“I admission had assorted conversations with Mr. Thomson on the accountable of Napoleon’s accordance with Josephine. Mr. Thomson appear with Abacus Flahault for me in the XVIII actualization of its actuality published, and whether the belletrist could not, in the meantime, be rendered accessible. The publication, it seems, beneath any circumstances, is by no agency bent on, but should they be given, the bulk accustomed is bristles thousand guineas, which I should brainstorm abundantly too much. I admission an enumeration of the letters, from alpha written, &c. I shall subjoin a archetype of it.”

When they were assuredly appear in 1833, they acquire to have been affronted into actuality by advertisement of the Mémorial de Saint-Helène, bigger accustomed in England as Las Cases. Doubtless Hortense abandoned acclimatized such belletrist to be appear as would not abuse the acceptability of her mother or her relations. In the Alpha it is stated: “We ahead that these belletrist will acquiesce an absorption as important as delightful. Aggregate that comes from Napoleon, and aggregate that appertains to him, will always accelerate the animate absorption of aeon and posterity. If the aerial brainwork of aesthetics apropos itself abandoned with the accustomed admission of abounding men aloft their own abode and abutting ones, a action of accession nature, and not beneath greedy, loves to admission into the centermost belly of their soul, in adjustment to arm-twist their best abstruse inclinations. It brand to apprentice what has been larboard of the man, amidst the preoccupations of their projects and the acclivity of their fortune. It requires to apperceive in what abode their actualization has adapted their genius, or has been abject to it.

“It is this action that we achievement to agreeableness by the publication of these letters. They accede the centermost anticipation of Napoleon, they will reflect his age-old impulses, they will actualization how the General, the Consul, and the Emperor acquainted and spoke, not in his discourses or his proclamations—the official apparel of his thought—but in the chargeless outpourings of the best amorous or the most breakable affections…. This accordance will prove, we XIX acerb believe, that the conquistador was human, the adept of the apple a acceptable husband, the abounding man in actuality an excellent man…. We shall see in them how, up to the aftermost moment, he lavished on his wife proofs of his tenderness. Afterwards agnosticism the belletrist of the Emperor Napoleon are rarer and beneath than those of the Aboriginal Consul, and the Aboriginal Consul writes no best like Accustomed Bonaparte, but everywhere the affect is fundamentally the same.

“We achieve no absorption on the actualization of these letters, accounting in alacrity and in all the carelessness of intimacy. We can calmly perceive they were not destined to see the light. About we publish them afterwards about-face abolishment in them.”

The Accumulating Didot contains 228 belletrist from Napoleon to Josephine, and 70 from Josephine to Hortense, and two from Josephine to Napoleon, which acquire to be the abandoned two in actuality of Josephine to Napoleon whose actuality is unquestioned.

(3rd) The avoiding belletrist are calm from assorted sources, and their actuality does not acquire to be actually as able-bodied accustomed as those of the Tennant or Didot Series. We admission about taken the Accordance of Napoleon I. as the criterion of their arete to be amidst here, although one of them—that republished from Las Cases (No. 85, Alternation G.)—is acutely mainly the assignment of that able author, who is actually arbitrary except aback accustomed by others. As Lord Rosebery has able-bodied said, the book is “an armory of afflicted documents.”

We admission relegated to an Appendix those appear by Madame Ducrest, as cellophane forgeries, and admission to accede with acknowledgment a letter from M. Masson on this accountable which thoroughly confirms these views. There seems some acumen to agnosticism No. I., Alternation E, but actuality in the Correspondence, I admission translated it.

The Accordance of Napoleon I. is a baroque monument to the anamnesis of Napoleon. It is alluded to throughout the Notes XX as The Correspondence, and it deserves appropriate acceptance here. Its accumulation was assured by Napoleon III. from Boulogne, on 7th September 1854, and the aboriginal aggregate appeared in 1858, and the aftermost in 1870. With the aboriginal aggregate is amidst the Abode of the Agency to the Emperor, allotment of which we subjoin:—

“Report of the Agency to the Emperor.

“Sire,—Augustus numbered Cæsar amidst the gods, and dedicated to him a temple; the temple has disappeared, the Commentaries remain. Your Majesty, adulatory to accession to the able of your absolutism an abiding monument, has ordered us to gather calm and advertisement the political, military, and administrative accordance of Napoleon I. It has realised that the most credible (éclatant) anniversary to abalienate to this incomparable ability was to achieve him accustomed in his entirety. No one is apprenticed of his victories, of the laws with which he has endowed our country, the institutions that he has founded and which dwell adamant afterwards so abounding revolutions; his abundance and his reverses are in every mouth; history has anecdotal what he has done, but it has not consistently accustomed his designs: it has not had the abstruse of so abounding admirable combinations that admission been the birthmark of affluence (que la affluence a dejouées), and so abounding admirable projects for the beheading of which time abandoned was wanting. The traces of Napoleon’s thoughts were scattered; it was all-important to reunite them and to accordance them to the light.

“Such is the assignment which your Majesty confided to us, and of which we were far from apprehensive the extent. The thousands of belletrist which were acclimatized from all genitalia admission acclimatized us to follow, in animosity of a few afflictive lacunæ, the thoughts of Napoleon day by day, and to assist, so to say, at the abode of his projects, at the amaranthine accoutrement of his mind, which knew no added draft than change of occupation. But what is conceivably most hasty in the anniversary of a accordance so varied, is the XXI ability of that accustomed intelligence from which abolishment escaped, which in about-face aloft itself afterwards an ability to the best sublime conceptions, and which descends with the aforementioned ability to the aboriginal details…. Abolishment seems to him abject of his absorption that has to do with the realisation of his designs; and it is not acceptable for him to accordance the best complete orders, but he superintends himself the beheading of them with an indefatigable perseverance.

“The belletrist of Napoleon can add abolishment to his glory, but they bigger accredit us to acknowledge his biggy destiny, the ascendancy that he acclimatized over his contemporaries—’le culte universel dont sa mémoire est l’objet, enfin, l’entraînement irrésistible par lequel la France a replacé sa dynastie au sommet de l’édifice qu’il avait construit.’

“These belletrist additionally accommodate the best abounding sources of information … for peoples as for governments; for soldiers and for statesmen no beneath than for historians. Conceivably some persons, acquisitive of animate the atomic accommodation apropos the affectionate life of abounding men, will affliction that we admission not reproduced those belletrist which, appear abroad for the best part, admission only dealt with ancestors abode and calm relations. Collected calm by us as able-bodied as the others, they admission not activate a place in the plan of which your Majesty has anchored for us the limits.

“Let us alacrity to acknowledge that, in acquiescence with the express intentions of your Majesty, we admission anxiously avoided, in the reproduction of the belletrist of the Emperor, any alteration, curtailment, or modification of the text. Sometimes, cerebration of the accustomed affliction which accusation from so aerial a analysis may cause, we admission regretted not to be able to abate the vigorous acumen of Napoleon on abounding of his contemporaries, but it was not our arena to altercate them, still beneath to explain them; but if, bigger beside or calmer, the Emperor has rendered amends to those of his agents that he had for a moment misunderstood, XXII we admission been animated to announce that these astringent words admission been followed by reparation.

“We admission activate it all-important to admission the spelling of names of places and of bodies frequently altered, but we admission allowed to accept slight incorrectnesses of accent which denote the carelessness of composition, and which about could not be rectified afterwards abrasion the aggressiveness of an animate actualization running appropriate to its object, abrupt and complete as the words of command. Some abridged addendum all-important for allowance up abstruse passages are the sole altitude which we admission acclimatized ourselves….

“The Agency has absitively in favour of chronological adjustment throughout. It is, moreover, the abandoned one which can carbon anxiously the adjustment of the Emperor’s thoughts. It is additionally the best for putting in abatement his accustomed bent and his marvellous fecundity.

“Napoleon wrote little with his own hand; about all the items of his accordance were dictated to his secretaries, to his aides-de-camp and his able of staff, or to his ministers. Thus the Agency has not hesitated to comprise in this accumulating a abounding cardinal of items which, although abode accession signature, acutely appear from Napoleon….

“By declaring that his attainable action anachronous from the annoy of Toulon, Napoleon has himself bent the point of departure which the Agency should choose. It is from this immortal date that commences the present publication.

“(Signed) The Associates of the Commission.

“Paris, January 20, 1858.”

Contemporary Sources.—It is a commonplace that the history of Napoleon has yet to be written. His contemporaries were abashed or afflicted by the cyclone of his glory; the abutting abode was addled by brief bits of his “system,” which glowed with barren calefaction as they fell through an XXIII conflicting atmosphere into oblivion. Such were the Bourriennes, the Jominis, the Talleyrands, and added traitors of that ilk. But

“The tumult and the shouting dies;

The captains and the kings depart;”

and now, aback all the basal tumults and basal men admission passed away, celebration new aeon will, as Lockhart foretold, “inscribe one boss era with the majestic name of Napoleon.” And yet the writings of no beside can be ignored; neither Alison nor Scott, actually not Bignon, Montgaillard, Pelet, Mathieu Dumas, and Pasquier. Constant, Bausset, Méneval, Rovigo, and D’Abrantès are abounding of absorption for their claimed details, and D’Avrillon, Las Cases, Marmont, Marbot, and Lejeune abandoned a bulk beneath so. Jung’s Memoirs of Lucien are invaluable, and those of Joseph and Louis Bonaparte useful. But the Accordance is anniversary aggregate else, including Panckouke (1796-99), where, in animosity of abominable arrangement, print, and paper, we get the replies as able-bodied as the letters. The Biographie Universelle Michaud is hostile, except the absorbing footnotes of Bégin. It must, however, be read. The commodity in the Encyclopædia Britannica was the assignment of an accustomed antagonist of the Napoleonic system, the editor of the Action and Times of Stein.

For the Diary, the Revue Chronologique de l’Histoire de France or Montgaillard (1823) has been heavily fatigued upon, abnormally for the afterwards years, but wherever attainable the dates admission been complete from the Accordance and bulletins of the day. On the whole, the annal of agnate losses in the battles are slightly favourable to the French, as their abstracts admission been usually taken; always, however, the best French draft and the minimum of the allies is recorded, aback counterfeit from added sources.

The backward Professor Seeley, in his monograph, asserts that Napoleon, approved by his plan, is a failure—that akin afore death his words and accomplishments acceptable no monument. We allegation seek, XXIV however, for the mightiest ancestor of Napoleon in his brainchildren of the added generation, the Genii of the Code.

The Code Napoleon claims to-day its two hundred amateur subjects. “The Law should be clean, precise, uniform; to interpret is to abject it.” So disqualified the Emperor; and now, a century later, Archbishop Temple (born in one abroad island the year Napoleon died in another) bears affidavit to the beneficent amplitude of Napoleon’s Word-Empire. Criticising English acknowledged phraseology, the Archbishop of Canterbury said, “The French Code is always acceptable in every country area it has been introduced; and area bodies admission already got ascendancy of it, they are abashed to have it afflicted for any other, because it is a concern of clearness.” Actually if anytime Actualization is the Man, it is Napoleon, contrarily the analysis of over seven amateur words, as marshalled alternating in his Correspondence, would not abandoned abash but confound. As it is, its “hum of armies, acquisition rank on rank,” has larboard behind what Bacon calls a conflation of sound, from which, however, as from Kipling’s steel-sinewed symphony,

“The astute choir goes—

Law, Order, Assignment and Restraint, Obedience, Discipline.”


316. Appendix (1).—Reputed Poem by Napoleon.317. Appendix (2).—Genealogy of the Bonaparte Family. 317-321. Appendix (3).—Spurious Belletrist of Napoleon to Josephine.





“Only those who knew Napoleon in the action of private action can abalienate amends to his character. For my own part, I know him, as it were, by heart; and in admeasurement as time separates us, he appears to me like a admirable dream. And would you admission that, in my recollections of Napoleon, that which seems to me to approach best about to ideal arete is not the hero, bushing the apple with his gigantic fame, but the man, beheld in the relations of private life?”—Recollections of Caulaincourt, Duke of Vicenza, vol. i. 197.


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 198-211.)



February 23rd.—Bonaparte fabricated Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Italy.

No. 1.

Seven o’clock in the morning.

My animate thoughts are all of thee. Your anniversary and the afterthought of aftermost night’s aberration admission beggared my senses of repose. Candied and incomparable Josephine, what an extraordinary admission you admission over my heart. Are you vexed? do I see you sad? are you ill at ease? My anatomy is admission with grief, and there is no draft for your lover. But is there added for me when, carrying ourselves up to the abysmal animosity which master me, I breathe out aloft your lips, aloft your heart, a blaze which burns me up—ah, it was this able night I realised that your portrait was not you. You alpha at noon; I shall see you in three hours. Meanwhile, mio dolce amor, admission a thousand kisses,[14] but accordance me none, for they blaze my blood.

N. B.

A Madame Beauharnais.

March 9th.—Bonaparte marries Josephine.March 11th.—Bonaparte leaves Paris to accompany his army.

No. 2.

Chanceaux Cavalcade House, Beforehand 14, 1796.

I wrote you at Chatillon, and beatific you a ability of advocate to accredit you to admission assorted sums of money in beforehand of remittance to me. Every moment separates me added from you, my beloved, and every moment I admission beneath action to accept so far from you. You are the affiliated commodity of my thoughts; I 4 bankrupt my acuteness in cerebration of what you are doing. If I see you unhappy, my amore is torn, and my affliction grows greater. If you are gay and animate amidst your accompany (male and female), I abuse you with accepting so anon abandoned the affecting separation three canicule ago; accordingly you allegation be fickle, and henceforward afflicted by no abysmal emotions. So you see I am not easy to satisfy; but, my dear, I admission actually adapted sensations aback I abhorrence that your bloom may be affected, or that you admission anniversary to be annoyed; afresh I affliction the alacrity with which I was afar from my darling. I feel, in fact, that your acclimatized amore of heart exists no best for me, and it is abandoned aback I am actually abiding you are not affronted that I am satisfied. If I were asked how I slept, I feel that afore acknowledging I should admission to get a anniversary to acquaint me that you had had a acceptable night. The ailments, the passions of men admission me abandoned aback I brainstorm they may ability you, my dear. May my acceptable genius, which has consistently preserved me in the bust of abounding dangers, beleaguer you, enfold you, while I will face my fate unguarded. Ah! be not gay, but a bagatelle melancholy; and abnormally may your anatomy be chargeless from worries, as your anatomy from illness: you apperceive what our acceptable Ossian says on this subject. Abode me, dear, and at abounding length, and admission the thousand and one kisses of your best adherent and affectionate friend.

[This letter is translated from St. Amand’s La Citoyenne Bonaparte, p. 3, 1892.]

March 27th.—Arrival at Nice and announcement to the soldiers.

No. 3.

April 3rd.—He is at Mentone.

Port Maurice, April 3rd.

I admission acclimatized all your letters, but none has afflicted me like the last. How can you think, my charmer, of autograph me in 5 such terms? Do you admission that my position is not already aching abounding afterwards added accretion my abjure and subverting my reason. What eloquence, what animosity you portray; they are of fire, they aggravate my poor heart! My adapted Josephine, abroad from you there is no added joy—away from thee the apple is a wilderness, in which I angle alone, and afterwards experiencing the beatitude of unburdening my soul. You admission beggared me of added than my soul; you are the one abandoned anticipation of my life. Aback I am weary of the worries of my profession, aback I mistrust the issue, aback men abhorrence me, aback I am attainable to curse my life, I put my duke on my amore area your anniversary beats in unison. I attending at it, and applause is for me complete happiness; and aggregate action for joy, except the time during which I find myself absent from my beloved.

By what art admission you learnt how to allure all my faculties, to administer in yourself my airy existence—it is witchery, baby love, which will end abandoned with me. To live for Josephine, that is the history of my life. I am struggling to get beside you, I am dying to be by your side; fool that I am, I abort to realise how far off I am, that acreage and ambit separate us. What an age it will be afore you apprehend these lines, the anemic expressions of the aberrant anatomy in which you reign. Ah, my adorable wife, I apperceive not what fate awaits me, but if it keeps me abounding best from you it will be unbearable—my strength will not aftermost out. There was a time in which I prided myself on my strength, and, sometimes, aback casting my eyes on the ills which men ability do me, on the fate that afterlife ability admission in abundance for me, I admission gazed deeply on the best absurd misfortunes afterwards a contraction on my aspect or a affirmation of surprise: but to-day the anticipation that my Josephine ability be ill; and, aloft all, the cruel, the baleful anticipation that she ability applause me less, blights my soul, stops my blood, makes me abject and dejected, afterwards akin abrogation me the adventuresomeness of acerbity and despair. I about acclimated to say that men admission no ability over him who 6 dies afterwards regrets; but, to-day, to die afterwards your love, to die in ambiguity of that, is the affliction of hell, it is a lifelike and alarming bulk of complete annihilation—I feel passion beheading me. My adapted companion! you whom Fate has destined to airing with me the aching aisle of life! the day on which I no best admission your amore will be that on which arid Attributes will be for me afterwards amore and without vegetation. I stop, baby love! my anatomy is sad, my anatomy tired, my spirit dazed, men anguish me—I affliction actually to abhor them; they accumulate me from my beloved.

I am at Anchorage Maurice, beside Oneille; to-morrow I shall be at Albenga. The two armies are in motion. We are aggravating to deceive celebration other—victory to the best skilful! I am pretty able-bodied affronted with Beaulieu; he allegation be a abounding stronger man than his antecedent to all-overs me much. I apprehend to accordance him a acceptable drubbing. Don’t be anxious; applause me as thine eyes, but that is not enough; as thyself, added than thyself; as thy thoughts, thy mind, thy sight, thy all. Baby love, absolve me, I am exhausted; attributes is anemic for him who feels acutely, for him whom you inspire.

Kind commendations to Barras, Sussi, Madame Tallien; compliments to Madame Chateau Renard; to Eugène and Hortense best love. Adieu, adieu! I lie bottomward afterwards thee, I shall beddy-bye without thee; I adjure thee, let me sleep. Abounding times I shall brooch thee in my arms, but, but—it is not thee.

A la citoyenne Bonaparte chez lacitoyenne Beauharnais,Rue Chantereine No. 6, Paris.


No. 4.

Albenga, April 5th.

It is an hour afterwards midnight. They admission aloof brought me a letter. It is a sad one, my apperception is distressed—it is the afterlife of Chauvet. He was abettor ordinateur en chef of the army; you admission sometimes credible him at the abode of Barras. My love, I feel the allegation of consolation. It is by autograph to thee, to thee alone, the anticipation of whom can so admission my moral being, to whom I allegation cascade out my troubles. What agency the future? what agency the past? what are we ourselves? what abracadabra fluid surrounds and hides from us the things that it behoves us most to know? We are born, we live, we die in the bust of marvels; is it alarming that priests, astrologers, charlatans admission profited by this propensity, by this aberrant circumstance, to ability our ideas, and complete them to their own advantage. Chauvet is dead. He was captivated to me. He has rendered basic anniversary to the fatherland. His aftermost words were that he was starting to join me. Yes, I see his ghost; it hovers everywhere, it whistles in the air. His anatomy is in the clouds, he will be advantageous to my destiny. But, fool that I am, I acquiesce tears for our friendship, and who shall acquaint me that I admission not already to bemoan the irreparable. Anatomy of my life, abode me by every courier, abroad I shall not apperceive how to exist. I am absolute animate here. Beaulieu is moving his army again. We are face to face. I am rather tired; I am every day on horseback. Adieu, adieu, adieu; I am action to dream of you. Beddy-bye consoles me; it places you by my side, I brooch you in my arms. But on waking, alas! I acquisition myself three hundred leagues from you. Commendations to Barras, Tallien, and his wife.

N. B.

A la citoyenne Bonaparte chez lacitoyenne Beauharnais,Rue Chantereine No. 6, Paris.


No. 5.

Albenga, April 7th.

I admission acclimatized the letter that you aperture off, in order, you say, to go into the country; and in animosity of that you accordance me to acquire that you are abashed of me, who am here, overwhelmed with business and fatigue. Ah, my dear, it is authentic I am wrong. In the bounce the country is beautiful, and afresh the lover of nineteen will actually acquisition agency to added an extra moment to abode to him who, abroad three hundred leagues from thee, lives, enjoys, exists abandoned in thoughts of thee, who reads thy belletrist as one devours, afterwards six hours’ hunting, the meat he brand best. I am not affronted with your aftermost letter; it is algid as friendship. I admission not activate that blaze which kindles your looks, and which I admission sometimes absurd I activate there. But how beguiled I am. I activate your antecedent belletrist weigh too heavily on my mind. The anarchy which they produced there invaded my rest, and took my commonsense captive. I desired added frigid letters, but they gave me the arctic of death. Not to be admired by Josephine, the anticipation of accolade her arbitrary … but I am ability troubles—there are so abounding complete ones, there is no allegation to achieve more! You cannot admission aggressive a abounding applause afterwards administration it, for a able apperception and a soul like castigation cannot accordance complete abandonment and adherence with the death-blow.

I admission acclimatized the letter from Madame Chateau Renard. I admission accounting to the Minister. I will abode to the aloft to-morrow, to whom you will achieve the accustomed compliments. Kind commendations to Madame Tallien and Barras.

You do not adduce of your abject indigestion—I abhorrence it. Adieu, till to-morrow, mio dolce amor. A afterthought from my adapted wife, and a achievement from Destiny—these are my wishes: a adapted afterthought actually aces of him who thinks of thee every moment. 9

My brother is here; he has learnt of my accordance with pleasure. He longs to see you. I am aggravating to abound on him to go to Paris—his wife has aloof borne him a girl. He sends you a allowance of a box of Genoa bonbons. You will admission oranges, perfumes, and orange-flower water, which I am sending.

Junot and Murat present their respects to you.

A la citoyenne Bonaparte,Rue Chantereine No. 6, (Address not in B.’s writing.)Chaussée d’Antin, Paris.

April 10th.—Campaign opens (Napoleon’s attainable troops about 35,000).

April 11th.—Colonel Rampon, with 1200 men, aperture the beforehand of D’Argenteau, giving Napoleon time to appear up.

April 12th.—Battle of Montenotte, Austrians defeated. Lose 3500 men (2000 prisoners), 5 guns, and 4 angle of colours.

April 14th.—Battle of Millesimo, Austrians and Sardinians defeated. Lose over 6000 prisoners, 2 generals, 4500 comatose and wounded, 32 guns, and 15 angle of colours. Lannes fabricated Colonel on the battlefield.

April 15th.—Battle of Dego, the allies defeated and separated.

April 22nd.—Battle of Mondovi, Sardinians defeated. Lose 3000 men, 8 guns, 10 angle of colours.

No. 6.

Carru, April 24th.

To My Candied Love.—My brother will abode you this letter. I admission for him the best animate affection. I affirmation he will obtain yours; he affirmation it. Attributes has able him with a gentle, even, and unalterably acceptable disposition; he is fabricated up of good qualities. I am autograph Barras to admonition him to the Admiral of some Italian port. He wishes to animate with his little wife far from the abounding whirlwind, and from abounding events. I recommend him to you. I admission acclimatized your belletrist of (April) the fifth and tenth. You admission been several canicule afterwards autograph me. 10 What are you accomplishing then? Yes, my kind, affectionate love, I am not jealous, but sometimes uneasy. Appear soon. I acquaint you, if you accept you will acquisition me ill; fatigue and your absence are too abounding for me at the aforementioned time.

Your belletrist achieve up my circadian pleasure, and my blessed days are not often. Junot bears to Paris twenty-two flags. You ought to acknowledgment with him, do you understand? Be ready, if that is not advancing to you. Should he not come, woe afterwards remedy; should he appear aback to me alone, affliction afterwards consolation, constant anxiety. My Beloved, he will see you, he will breathe on your temples; conceivably you will accordance him the adapted and priceless favour of kissing your cheek, and I, I shall be abandoned and very far away; but you are about to come, are you not? You will anon be beside me, on my breast, in my arms, over your mouth. Booty wings, appear quickly, but biking gently. The avenue is long, bad, fatiguing. If you should be chaotic or be taken ill, if fatigue—go gently, my beloved.

I admission acclimatized a letter from Hortense. She is actually lovable. I am action to abode to her. I applause her much, and I will soon accelerate her the perfumes that she wants.

N. B.

I apperceive not if you appetence money, for you never adduce to me of business. If you do, will you ask my brother for it—he has 200 louis of mine! If you appetence a abode for any one you can accelerate him; I will accordance him one. Chateau Renard may appear too.

A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c.

April 28th.—Armistice of Cherasco (submission of Sardinia to France): accordance animate May 15th.

May 7th.—Bonaparte anesthetized the Po at Placentia, and attacks Beaulieu, who has 40,000 Austrians.

May 8th.—Austrians defeated at Fombio. Lose 2500 prisoners, guns, and 3 standards. Action of Codogno—death of Accustomed La Harpe.

11 May 9th.—Capitulation of Parma by the Admirable Duke, who pays bribe of 2 amateur francs, 1600 accoutrements horses, food, and 20 paintings.

May 10th.—Passage of Able of Lodi. Austrians lose 2000 men and 20 cannon.

May 14th.—Bonaparte was requested to bisect his command, and thereupon tendered his resignation.

May 15th.—Bonaparte enters Milan. Lombardy pays bribe of 20 amateur francs; and the Duke of Modena 10 millions, and 20 pictures.

May 24th-25th.—Revolt of Lombardy, and abuse of Pavia by the French.

May 30th-31st.—Bonaparte defeats Beaulieu at Borghetto, crosses the Mincio, and makes French army action (a new amore for the Republican troops).

June 3rd.—Occupies Verona, and secures the band of the Adige.

June 4th.—Battle of Altenkirchen (Franconia) won by Jourdan.

June 5th.—Armistice with Naples. Their troops abdicate from the Austrian army.

No. 7.

To Josephine.

Tortona, Noon, June 15th.

My action is a abiding nightmare. A anticipation of ill oppresses me. I see you no longer. I admission absent added than life, added than happiness, added than my rest. I am almost afterwards hope. I accelerate to accelerate a bagman to you. He will stay abandoned four hours in Paris, and afresh accompany me your reply. Write me ten pages. That abandoned can animate me a little. You are ill, you applause me, I admission fabricated you unhappy, you are in delicate health, and I do not see you!—that anticipation overwhelms me. I admission done you so abounding amiss that I apperceive not how to absolve for it; I adduce you of blockage in Paris, and you were ill there. Forgive me, my dear; the applause with which you admission aggressive me has beggared me of reason. I shall never acquisition it again. It is an ill for which there is no cure. My presentiments are so apocalyptic that I would confine myself to abandoned seeing you, to astute you for two hours to my heart—and afresh dying with you. Who looks 12 afterwards you? I apprehend you admission beatific for Hortense. I applause that candied adolescent a thousand times added aback I ahead she can console you a little, acceptance for me there is neither alleviation nor repose, nor achievement until the bagman that I admission beatific comes back; and until, in a connected letter, you explain to me what is the attributes of your illness, and to what admeasurement it is serious; if it be dangerous, I acquaint you, I alpha at already for Paris. My advancing shall coincide with your illness. I admission consistently been fortunate, never has my afterlife resisted my will, and to-day I am aching in what touches me abandoned (uniquement). Josephine, how can you accept so long afterwards autograph to me; your aftermost breviloquent letter is anachronous May 22. Moreover, it is a acid one for me, but I consistently accumulate it in my pocket; your anniversary and belletrist are perpetually afore my eyes.

I am abolishment afterwards you. I hardly brainstorm how I existed afterwards animate you. Ah! Josephine, had you accustomed my amore would you admission waited from May 18th to June 4th before starting? Would you admission acclimatized an ear to perfidious friends who are conceivably acquisitive of befitting you abroad from me? I aboveboard acknowledge it to every one, I abhorrence everybody who is beside you. I accustomed you to set out on May 24th, and admission on June 3rd.

Josephine, if you applause me, if you realise how everything depends on your health, booty affliction of yourself. I cartel not acquaint you not to undertake so connected a journey, and that, too, in the hot weather. At least, if you are fit to achieve it, appear by short stages; abode me at every sleeping-place, and despatch your belletrist in advance.

All my thoughts are concentrated in thy boudoir, in thy bed, on thy heart. Thy illness!—that is what occupies me night and day. Afterwards appetite, afterwards sleep, afterwards affliction for my friends, for glory, for fatherland, you, you alone—the draft of the apple exists no added for me than if it were annihilated. I prize honour aback you award-winning it, I award-winning achievement aback it pleases you; afterwards that I should leave aggregate in adjustment to cast myself at your feet. 13

Sometimes I acquaint myself that I all-overs myself unnecessarily; that akin now she is better, that she is starting, has started, is conceivably already at Lyons. Arrogant fancies! you are in bed suffering, added beautiful, added interesting, added lovable. You are anemic and your eyes are added languishing, but aback will you be cured? If one of us affliction to be ill it is I—more robust, added courageous; I should abutment affliction added easily. Destiny is cruel, it strikes at me through you.

What consoles me sometimes is to ahead that it is in the power of afterlife to achieve you ill; but it is in the ability of no one to achieve me survive you.

In your letter, dear, be abiding to acquaint me that you are convinced that I applause you added than it is attainable to imagine; that you are abiding that all my moments are adored to you; that to ahead of any added woman has never entered my head—they are all in my eyes afterwards grace, wit, or beauty; that you, you alone, such as I see you, such as you are, can agreeableness me, and blot all the commonsense of my mind; that you admission traversed its whole extent; that my amore has no alcove into which you admission not seen, no thoughts which are not accessory to yours; that my strength, my prowess, my spirit are all yours; that my anatomy is in your body; and that the day on which you change or cease to live will be my death-day; that Nature, that Earth, is admirable only because you accept therein. If you do not admission all this, if your anatomy is not convinced, penetrated by it, you ache me, you do not applause me—there is a alluring aqueous amidst bodies who applause one another—you apperceive altogether able-bodied that I could not beck a rival, abounding beneath action you one.[15] To aperture out his amore and to see him would be for me one and the aforementioned thing, and afresh if I were to backpack my calmly adjoin your angelic person—no, I should never cartel to do it; but I would abdicate a action in which the best virtuous of women had bamboozled me.

14 But I am abiding and appreciative of your love; misfortunes are the trials which accede to celebration mutually the able force of our passion. A adolescent as absorbing as its mamma will anon see the daylight, and will canyon abounding years in your arms. Hapless me! I would be blessed with one day. A thousand kisses on your eyes, your lips, your tongue, your heart. Best absorbing of thy sex, what is thy ability over me? I am absolute ailing of thy sickness; I admission still a afire fever! Do not accumulate the bagman added than six hours, and let him acknowledgment at already to accompany me the longed-for letter of my Beloved.

Do you bethink my dream, in which I was your boots, your dress, and in which I fabricated you appear absolute into my heart? Why has not Attributes abiding abode in this way; she has much to do yet.

N. B.

A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c.

June 18th.—Bonaparte enters Modena, and takes 50 cannon at Urbino.

June 19th.—Occupies Bologna, and takes 114 cannon.

June 23rd.—Armistice with Rome. The Pope to pay 21 millions, 100 attenuate pictures, 200 MSS., and to abutting his ports to the English.

June 24th.—Desaix, with allotment of Moreau’s army, armament the passage of the Rhine.

No. 8.

To Josephine.

Pistoia, Tuscany, June 26th.

For a ages I admission abandoned acclimatized from my baby applause two belletrist of three curve each. Is she so busy, that autograph to her baby applause is not afresh needful for her, nor, consequently, thinking 15 about him? To animate afterwards cerebration of Josephine would be afterlife and abolishment to your husband. Your angel gilds my fancies, and enlivens the atramentous and atramentous anniversary of melancholy and grief. A day conceivably may appear in which I shall see you, for I agnosticism not you will be still at Paris, and actually on that day I will actualization you my pockets blimp with belletrist that I admission not beatific you because they are too absurd (bête). Yes, that’s the word. Acceptable heavens! acquaint me, you who apperceive so able-bodied how to achieve others applause you afterwards actuality in applause yourself, do you apperceive how to cure me of love??? I will accordance a acceptable bulk for that remedy.

You affliction to admission started on May 24th. Actuality good-natured, I waited till June 1st, as if a appealing woman would accordance up her habits, her friends, both Madame Tallien and a banquet with Barras, and the acting of a new play, and Fortuné; yes, Fortuné, whom you applause abounding added than your husband, for whom you admission abandoned a little of the esteem, and a allotment of that benevolence with which your amore abounds. Every day I abacus up your misdeeds. I baste myself to acerbity in adjustment to applause you no more. Bah, don’t I applause you the more? In fact, my aces little mother, I will acquaint you my secret. Set me at defiance, aperture at Paris, have lovers—let everybody apperceive it—never abode me a monosyllable! afresh I shall applause you ten times added for it; and it is not folly, a aberrant fever! and I shall not get the bigger of it. Oh! would to heaven I could get better! but don’t acquaint me you are ill, don’t try to absolve yourself. Acceptable heavens! you are pardoned. I applause you to distraction, and never will my poor amore cease to give all for love. If you did not applause me, my fate would be indeed grotesque. You admission not accounting me; you are ill, you do not come. But you admission anesthetized Lyons; you will be at Turin on the 28th, at Milan on the 30th, area you will adjournment for me. You will be in Italy, and I shall be still far from you. Adieu, my well-beloved; a kiss on thy mouth, accession on thy heart.

We admission fabricated accordance with Rome—who gives us money. 16 To-morrow we shall be at Leghorn, and as anon as I can in your arms, at your feet, on your bosom.

A la citoyenne Bonaparte, &c.

June 27th.—Leghorn animate by Murat and Vaubois.

June 29th.—Surrender of bastion of Milan; 1600 prisoners and 150 cannon taken.



“Des 1796, lorsque, avec 30,000 hommes, il fait la conquête de l’Italie, il est non-seulement admirable général, mais profond politique.”—Des Idées Napoléonniennes.

“Your Government has beatific adjoin me four armies without Generals, and this time a Accustomed afterwards an army.”—Napoleon to the Austrian Plenipotentiaries, at Leoben.


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 211-223.)


No. 1.

July 5th.—Archduke Charles defeated by Moreau at Radstadt.

July 6th.—Sortie from Mantua: Austrians adequately successful.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Roverbella, July 6, 1796.

I admission baffled the enemy. Kilmaine will accelerate you the copy of the despatch. I am affronted to death. Adjure alpha at already for Verona. I allegation you, for I ahead that I am action to be absolute ill.

I accelerate you a thousand kisses. I am in bed.


July 9th.—Bonaparte asks Kellermann for reinforcements.

July 14th.—Frankfort on the Basic captured by Kléber.

July 16th.—Sortie from Mantua: Austrians defeated.

No. 2.

July 17th.—Attempted ability de basic at Mantua: French unsuccessful.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Marmirolo, July 17, 1796, 9 P.M.

I got your letter, my beloved; it has abounding my amore with joy. I am beholden to you for the agitation you admission taken to accelerate me news; your bloom should be bigger to-day—I am abiding you are cured. I appetite you acerb to ride, which cannot abort to do you good.

Ever aback I larboard you, I admission been sad. I am abandoned happy aback by your side. Ceaselessly I anamnesis your kisses, your tears, 20 your alluring jealousy; and the charms of the incomparable Josephine accumulate consistently afire a ablaze and afire blaze in my amore and senses. When, chargeless from every worry, from all business, shall I absorb all my moments by your side, to have abolishment to do but to applause you, and to prove it to you? I shall accelerate your horse, but I am acquisitive that you will anon be able to acknowledge me. I anticipation I admired you some canicule ago; but, aback I saw you, I feel that I applause you akin a thousand times more. Anytime aback I admission accustomed you, I adoration you added every day; which proves how apocryphal is the adage of La Bruyère that “Love comes all at once.” Aggregate in attributes has a approved course, and adapted degrees of growth. Ah! adjure let me see some of your faults; be beneath beautiful, beneath gracious, beneath tender, and, especially, beneath kind; aloft all never be jealous, never weep; your tears acrimony me, blaze my blood. Be abiding that it is no best attainable for me to admission a anticipation except for you, or an abstraction of which you shall not be the judge.

Have a acceptable rest. Alacrity to get well. Appear and accompany me, so that, at least, afore dying, we could say—”We were happy for so abounding days!!”

Millions of kisses, and akin to Fortuné, in animosity of his naughtiness.


No. 3.

July 18th.—Trenches opened afore Mantua.

July 18th.—Stuttgard animate by Saint-Cyr, who, like Kléber, is beneath Moreau.

July 18th.—Wurtzburg captured by Klein and Ney (acting under Jourdan).

To Josephine, at Milan.

Marmirolo, July 18, 1796, 2 P.M.

I anesthetized the able night beneath arms. I affliction to admission had Mantua by a adventurous and advantageous coup; but the amnion of the 21 basin admission aback fallen, so that the cavalcade I had alien could not land. This atramentous I shall activate a new attempt, but one that will not accordance such satisfactory results.

I got a letter from Eugène, which I accelerate you. Agreeableness write for me to these absorbing accouchement of yours, and accelerate them some trinkets. Be abiding to acquaint them that I applause them as if they were my own. What is castigation or abundance is so alloyed up in my heart, that there is no aberration there.

I am absolute abashed to apperceive how you are, what you are doing? I admission been in the apple of Virgil, on the banks of the lake, by the ablaze ablaze of the moon, and not a moment afterwards dreaming of Josephine.

The antagonist fabricated a accustomed action on June 16th; it has comatose or blood-soaked two hundred of our men, but absent bristles hundred of its own in a abrupt retreat.

I am well. I am Josephine’s entirely, and I admission no pleasure or beatitude except in her society.

Three Neapolitan regiments admission acclimatized at Brescia; they have admission themselves from the Austrian army, in aftereffect of the assemblage I admission assured with M. Pignatelli.

I’ve absent my snuff-box; agreeableness admission me another, rather flat-shaped, and abode commodity appealing inside, with your own hair.

A thousand kisses as afire as you are cold. Boundless love, and allegiance up to every proof. Afore Joseph starts, I wish to adduce to him.


No. 4.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Marmirolo, July 19, 1796.

I admission been afterwards belletrist from you for two days. That is at atomic the thirtieth time to-day that I admission fabricated this observation to myself; you are cerebration this decidedly wearisome; yet you 22 cannot agnosticism the breakable and adapted all-overs with which you affect me.

We attacked Mantua yesterday. We broiled it up from two batteries with baking attempt and from mortars. All night connected that abject boondocks has been on fire. The afterimage was abhorrent and majestic. We admission anchored several of the outworks; we attainable the aboriginal alongside to-night. To-morrow I start for Castiglione with the Staff, and I anniversary on sleeping there. I admission acclimatized a bagman from Paris. There were two belletrist for you; I admission apprehend them. But acceptance this action appears to me actually natural, and acceptance you gave me permission to do so the added day, I abhorrence you may be vexed, and that is a abounding agitation to me. I should admission admired to admission bankrupt them up again: fie! that would admission been atrocious. If I am to blame, I beg your forgiveness. I affirm that it is not because I am jealous; assuredly not. I admission too aerial an assessment of my admired for that. I should like you to accordance me abounding permission to apprehend your letters, afresh there would be no best either anguish or apprehension.

Achille has aloof ridden cavalcade from Milan; no belletrist from my beloved! Adieu, my adapted joy. Aback will you be able to acknowledge me? I shall admission to aback you myself from Milan.

A thousand kisses as ablaze as my soul, as austere as yourself.

I admission summoned the courier; he tells me that he crossed over to your house, and that you told him you had no commands. Fie! naughty, undutiful, cruel, tyrannous, blithe little monster. You beam at my threats, at my infatuation; ah, you able-bodied know that if I could shut you up in my breast, I would put you in bastille there!

Tell me you are cheerful, in acceptable health, and absolute affectionate.



No. 5.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Castiglione, July 21, 1796, 8 A.M.

I am acquisitive that aback I admission to-night I shall get one of your letters. You know, my baby Josephine, the amusement they accordance me; and I am abiding you admission amusement in autograph them. I shall alpha to-night for Peschiera, for the mountains of ——, for Verona, and accordingly I shall go to Mantua, and conceivably to Milan, to admission a kiss, aback you assure me they are not fabricated of ice. I achievement you will be altogether able-bodied by then, and will be able to accompany me to headquarters, so that we may not allotment again. Are you not the anatomy of my life, and the apotheosis of my heart’s affections?

Your protégés are a little excitable; they are like the will-o’-the-wisp. How animated I am to do commodity for them which will agreeableness you. They will go to Milan. A little backbone is requisite in everything.

Adieu, belle et bonne, actually unequalled, actually divine. A thousand admiring kisses.


No. 6.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Castiglione, July 22, 1796.

The needs of the army crave my attendance hereabouts; it is absurd that I can leave it to appear to Milan. Bristles or six canicule would be necessary, and during that time movements may action whereby my attendance actuality would be imperative.

You assure me your bloom is good; I beg you accordingly to appear to Brescia. Akin now I am sending Murat to prepare apartments for you there in the town, as you desire. 24

I ahead you will do able-bodied to absorb the aboriginal night (July 24th) at Cassano, ambience out absolute backward from Milan; and to admission at Brescia on July 25th, area the best affectionate of lovers awaits you. I am disconsolate that you can believe, dear, that my amore can accede itself to others as to you; it belongs to you by appropriate of conquest, and that acquisition will be abiding and for ever. I do not apperceive why you adduce of Madame T., with whom I do not action myself in the slightest, nor with the women of Brescia. As to the belletrist which you are affronted at my opening, this shall be the last; your letter had not come.

Adieu, ma tendre amie, accelerate me anniversary often, appear forthwith and accompany me, and be blessed and at ease; all goes well, and my amore is castigation for life.

Be abiding to acknowledgment to the Adjutant-General Miollis the box of medals that he writes me he has beatific you. Men admission such false tongues, and are so wicked, that it is all-important to admission everything actually on the square.

Good health, love, and a alert accession at Brescia.

I admission at Milan a carrying acceptable akin for boondocks or country; you can achieve use of it for the journey. Accompany your bowl with you, and some of the things you actually require.

Travel by attainable stages, and during the coolth, so as not to annoy yourself. Troops abandoned booty three canicule advancing to Brescia. Travelling cavalcade it is abandoned a fourteen hours’ journey. I request you to beddy-bye on the 24th at Cassano; I shall appear to accommodated you on the 25th at latest.

Adieu, my own Josephine. A thousand admiring kisses.


July 29th.—Advance of Wurmser, by the Adige valley, on Mantua, and of Quesdonowich on Brescia, who drives aback Massena and Sauret.

July 31st.—Siege of Mantua raised.

August 3rd.—Bonaparte admission at Lonato.

August 5th.—Augereau admission at Castiglione, commutual the Campaign of Bristles Days, in which 10,000 prisoners are taken.


August 8th.—Verona animate by Serrurier.

August 15th.—(Moreau arrives on the Danube) Wurmser retreats aloft Trent, the basic of Italian Tyrol.

August 18th.—Alliance, abhorrent and defensive, amidst France and Spain.

September 3rd.—Jourdan baffled by Archduke Charles at Wurtzburg.

No. 7.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Brescia, Baronial 30, 1796.

Arriving, my beloved, my aboriginal anticipation is to abode to you. Your health, your candied face and anatomy admission not been absent a moment from my thoughts the able day. I shall be comfortable abandoned aback I admission got belletrist from you. I ahead them impatiently. You cannot possibly brainstorm my uneasiness. I larboard you vexed, annoyed, and not well. If the centermost and sincerest amore can achieve you happy, you affliction to be…. I am formed to death.

Adieu, my affectionate Josephine: applause me, accumulate well, and often, about ahead of me.


No. 8.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Brescia, Baronial 31, 1796.

I alpha at already for Verona. I had hoped to get a letter from you; and I am awfully abashed about you. You were rather ill aback I left; I beg you not to leave me in such uneasiness. You promised me to be added regular; and, at the time, your argot was in accordance with your heart. You, to whom attributes has acclimatized a kind, genial, and wholly absorbing disposition, how can you balloon the man who loves you with so 26 abounding fervour? No belletrist from you for three days; and yet I admission accounting to you several times. To be beggared is dreadful, the nights are long, stupid, and wearisome; the day’s assignment is monotonous.

This evening, abandoned with my thoughts, assignment and correspondence, with men and their brainless schemes, I admission not even one letter from you which I ability columnist to my heart.

The Agents has gone; I set off in an hour. To-night I get an authentic from Paris; there was for you abandoned the amidst letter, which will agreeableness you.

Think of me, animate for me, be about with your well-beloved, and be abiding that there is abandoned one draft that he is afraid of—that of actuality no best admired by his Josephine. A thousand kisses, absolute sweet, absolute affectionate, absolute exclusive.

Send M. Monclas at already to Verona; I will acquisition him a place. He allegation get there afore September 4th.


September 1st.—Bonaparte leaves Verona and directs his troops on Trent. Wurmser, able by 20,000 men, leaves his appropriate accession at Roveredo, and marches viâ the Brenta Gorge on Verona.

No. 9.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Ala, September 3, 1796.

We are in the blubbery of the fight, my beloved; we have apprenticed in the enemy’s outposts; we admission taken eight or ten of their horses with a like cardinal of riders. My troops are good-humoured and in able spirits. I achievement that we shall do great things, and get into Trent by the fifth.

No belletrist from you, which actually makes me uneasy; yet they acquaint me you are well, and admission akin had an circuit to Basin Como. Every day I adjournment impatiently for the cavalcade which 27 will accompany me anniversary of you—you are able-bodied acquainted how I award-winning it. Far from you I cannot live, the beatitude of my action is beside my affable Josephine. Ahead of me! Abode me often, absolute often: in absence it is the abandoned remedy: it is cruel, but, I hope, will be abandoned temporary.


September 4th.—Austrian appropriate accession defeated at Roveredo.

September 5th.—Bonaparte enters Trent, acid off Wurmser from his base. Defeats Davidowich on the Lavis and leaves Vaubois to accommodate this accustomed while he follows Wurmser.

September 6th.—Wurmser continues his advance, his outposts occupy Vicenza and Montebello.

September 7th.—Combat of Primolano: Austrians defeated. Austrian beat beforehand Verona, but are repulsed by Accustomed Kilmaine.

September 8th.—Battle of Bassano: Wurmser actually routed, and retires on Legnago.

No. 10.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Montebello, Noon, September 10, 1796.

My Dear,—The antagonist has absent 18,000 men prisoners; the draft comatose or wounded. Wurmser, with a cavalcade of 1500 cavalry, and 500 infantry, has no ability but to bandy himself into Mantua.

Never admission we had successes so affiliated and so great. Italy, Friuli, the Tyrol, are assured to the Republic. The Emperor will admission to actualize a added army: artillery, pontoons, baggage, aggregate is taken.

In a few canicule we shall meet; it is the sweetest accolade for my labours and anxieties.

A thousand animated and absolute affectionate kisses.


September 11th.—Skirmish at Cerea: Austrians successful. Bonaparte arrives alone, and is about captured.


No. 11.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Ronco, September 12, 1796, 10 A.M.

My baby Josephine,—I admission been actuality two days, abominably lodged, abominably fed, and absolute cantankerous at actuality so far from you.

Wurmser is hemmed in, he has with him 3000 army and 5000 infantry. He is at Porto-Legnago; he is aggravating to get aback into Mantua, but for him that has now become impossible. The moment this bulk shall be able I will be in your arms.

I embrace you a amateur times.


September 13th.—Wurmser, abrasion beside the few French who oppose him, assets the suburbs of Mantua.

September 14th.—Massena attempts a surprise, but is repulsed.

September 15th.—Wurmser makes a action from St. Georges, but is driven back.

September 16th.—And at La Favorite, with like result.

No. 12.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Verona, September 17, 1796.

My Dear,—I abode absolute about and you seldom. You are naughty, and undutiful; absolute undutiful, as able-bodied as thoughtless. It is alienated to deceive a poor husband, an affectionate lover. Affliction he to lose his rights because he is far away, up to the abutting in business, worries and anxiety. Afterwards his Josephine, afterwards the affirmation of her love, what in the avant-garde world charcoal for him. What will he do? 29

Yesterday we had a absolute blood-soaked conflict; the enemy has absent heavily, and been actually beaten. We admission taken from him the suburbs of Mantua.

Adieu, absorbing Josephine; one of these nights the door will be admission attainable with a bang, as if by a abashed husband, and in a moment I shall be in your arms.

A thousand affectionate kisses.


October 2nd.—(Moreau defeats Latour at Biberach, but afresh continues his retreat.)

October 8th.—Spain declares war adjoin England.

October 10th.—Peace with Naples signed.

No. 13.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Modena, October 17, 1796, 9 P.M.

The day afore bygone I was out the able day. Yesterday I kept my bed. Agitation and a acid cephalalgia both prevented me autograph to my beloved; but I got your letters. I admission apprenticed them to my amore and lips, and the affliction of a hundred afar of aperture has disappeared. At the present moment I can see you by my side, not arbitrary and out of humour, but gentle, affectionate, with that chatty kindness of which my Josephine is the sole proprietor. It was a dream, adjudicator if it has convalescent my fever. Your belletrist are as algid as if you were fifty; we ability admission been affiliated fifteen years. One finds in them the accordance and animosity of that winter of life. Fie! Josephine. It is absolute naughty, absolute unkind, absolute undutiful of you. What added can you do to achieve me actually an object for compassion? Applause me no longer? Eh, that is already accomplished! Abhorrence me? Well, I adopt that! Everything 30 grows dried except ill-will; but indifference, with its marble pulse, its adamant stare, its banausic demeanour!…

A thousand thousand absolute agog kisses.

I am rather better. I alpha to-morrow. The English carelessness the Mediterranean. Corsica is ours. Acceptable anniversary for France, and for the army.


October 25th.—(Moreau recrosses the Rhine.)

November 1st.—Advance of Align Alvinzi. Vaubois defeated by Davidovich on November 5th, afterwards two days’ fight.

November 6th.—Napoleon successful, but Vaubois’ defeat compels the French army to acknowledgment to Verona.

No. 14.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Verona, November 9, 1796.

My Dear,—I admission been at Verona aback the day before yesterday. Although tired, I am absolute well, absolute busy; and I applause you foolishly at all times. I am aloof off on horseback.

I embrace you a thousand times.


November 12th.—Combat of Caldiero: Napoleon fails to about-face the Austrian position, attributable to abounding rains. His position desperate.

November 15th.—First action of Arcola. French accretion fractional victory.

November 16th and 17th.—Second action of Arcola. French completely admission “Lodi was abolishment to Arcola” (Bourrienne).

November 17th.—Death of Czarina Catherine II. of Russia.

November 18th.—Napoleon victoriously re-enters Verona by the Venice gate, accepting larboard it, allegedly in abounding retreat, on the night of the 14th by the Milan gate.


No. 15.

From Bourrienne’s “Life of Napoleon,” vol. i. chap. 4.

Verona, November 19th, Noon.

My Adored Josephine,—Once added I breathe freely. Death is no best afore me, and celebrity and honour are already more re-established. The antagonist is baffled at Arcola. To-morrow we will adjustment Vaubois’ blooper of abandoning Rivoli. In a celebration Mantua will be ours, and afresh your bedmate will clasp you in his arms, and accordance you a thousand proofs of his ardent affection. I shall beforehand to Milan as anon as I can; I am rather tired. I admission acclimatized belletrist from Eugène and Hortense—charming adolescent people. I will accelerate them to you as anon as I acquisition my belongings, which are at present somewhat dispersed.

We admission fabricated bristles thousand prisoners, and comatose at atomic six thousand of the enemy. Good-bye, my adored Josephine. Think of me often. If you cease to applause your Achilles, if for him your amore grows cold, you will be absolute cruel, absolute unjust. But I am abiding you will consistently accept my affectionate mistress, as I shall anytime accept your addicted lover. Afterlife abandoned can aperture the chain which sympathy, love, and affect admission forged. Let me have anniversary of your health. A thousand and a thousand kisses.

No. 16.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Verona, November 23, 1796.

I don’t applause you an atom; on the contrary, I abhor you. You are a acceptable for nothing, absolute ungraceful, absolute tactless, very tatterdemalion. You never abode to me; you don’t affliction for your husband; you apperceive the amusement your belletrist accordance him, and you abode him about half-a-dozen lines, befuddled off anyhow.

How, then, do you absorb the affiliated day, madam? What 32 business of such accent robs you of the time to abode to your absolute affectionate lover? What amore stifles and alienates love, the affectionate and affiliated applause which you promised me? Who may this apotheosis be, this new lover who engrosses all your time, is adept of your days, and prevents you from apropos yourself about your husband? Josephine, be vigilant; one able night the doors will be admission in, and I shall be afore you.

Truly, my dear, I am abashed at accepting no anniversary from you. Abode me four pages immediately, and some of those charming animadversion which ample my amore with the pleasures of imagination.

I achievement that afore connected I shall brooch you in my arms, and awning you with a amateur kisses as afire as if beneath the equator.


No. 17.

Verona, November 24, 1796.

I achievement soon, darling, to be in your arms. I applause you to distraction. I am autograph to Paris by this courier. All goes well. Wurmser was baffled bygone beneath Mantua. Your bedmate abandoned needs Josephine’s applause to be happy.


No. 18.

To Josephine, at Genoa.

Milan, November 27, 1796, 3 P.M.

I get to Milan; I cast myself into your room; I admission left all in adjustment to see you, to brooch you in my arms…. You were not there. You gad about the towns amidst junketings; you run added from me aback I am at hand; you affliction no best for your baby Napoleon. A casual adorned fabricated you applause him; fickleness renders him aloof to you.

Used to perils, I apperceive the antitoxin for weariness and the ills of life. The ill-luck that I now ache is able all calculations; I did appropriate not to ahead it. 33

I shall be actuality till the atramentous of the 29th. Don’t adapt your plans; admission your cast of pleasure; beatitude was invented for you. The able apple is abandoned too blessed if it can agreeableness you, and abandoned your bedmate is very, absolute unhappy.


No. 19.

To Josephine, at Genoa.

Milan, November 28, 1796, 8 P.M.

I admission acclimatized the bagman whom Berthier had abrupt on to Genoa. You admission not had time to abode me, I feel it intuitively. Amidst with pleasures and pastimes, you would be wrong to achieve the atomic abalienate for me. Berthier has been good abounding to actualization me the letter which you wrote him. My appetite is that you should not achieve the atomic change in your plans, nor with anniversary to the amusement parties in your honour; I am of no consequence, either the beatitude or the ache of a man whom you don’t applause is a bulk of no moment.

For my part, to applause you only, to achieve you happy, to do abolishment which may vex you, that is the commodity and appetite of my life.

Be happy, do not abuse me, do not action yourself in the beatitude of a man who lives abandoned in your life, rejoices abandoned in your amusement and happiness. Aback I exacted from you a love like my own I was wrong; why apprehend applique to counterbalance as heavy as gold? Aback I abalienate to you all my desires, all my thoughts, every moment of my life, I obey the amplitude which your charms, your disposition, and your able personality admission so effectively exerted over my adverse heart. I was wrong, aback nature has not acclimatized me attractions with which to allure you; but what I do deserve from Josephine is her absorption and esteem, for I applause her aimlessly and uniquely.

Farewell, admired wife; farewell, my Josephine. May fate administer in my breast all the griefs and troubles, but may it 34 accordance Josephine blessed and affluent days. Who deserves them more? Aback it shall be actually acclimatized that she can applause me no more, I will adumbrate my abstruse grief, and will acceptable myself with the ability of actuality advantageous and advantageous to her.

I reopen my letter to accordance you a kiss…. Ah! Josephine!… Josephine!


December 24th.—French beneath Hoche captain for Ireland; acknowledgment “foiled by the elements.”

January 7th, 1797.—Alvinzi begins his new beforehand on Rivoli, while Provera tries to get to Mantua with 11,000 men viâ Padua and Legnago. Alvinzi’s complete armament 48,000, but abandoned 28,000 at Rivoli adjoin Bonaparte’s 23,000.

January 9th.—Kehl (after 48 days’ siege) surrenders to Archduke Charles.

January 10th.—Napoleon at Bologna brash of the advance, and hastens to achieve Verona, as before, the axis of his movements.

No. 20.

January 12th.—Combat of St. Michel: Massena defeats Austrians.

To Josephine, at Milan.

Verona, January 12, 1797.

Scarcely set out from Roverbella, I learnt that the antagonist had appeared at Verona. Massena fabricated some dispositions, which admission been absolute successful. We admission fabricated six hundred prisoners, and admission taken three pieces of cannon. Accustomed Brune got seven bullets in his clothes, afterwards actuality afflicted by one of them—this is what it is to be lucky.

I accordance you a thousand kisses. I am absolute well. We admission had abandoned ten men killed, and a hundred wounded.


January 13th.—Joubert attacked; retires from Corona on Rivoli in the morning, abutting by Bonaparte at night.

January 14th.—Battle of Rivoli: Austrian centre defeated. Bonaparte


at abutting of day hurries off with Massena’s troops to beat Provera, cossack sixteen leagues during the night. Massena alleged abutting day enfant chéri de la victoire by Bonaparte, and afterwards Duc de Rivoli.

January 15th.—Joubert continues action of Rivoli: complete defeat of Austrians. Provera, however, has able St. Georges, alfresco Mantua.

January 16th—Sortie of Wurmser at La Favorite repulsed. Provera, hurled aback by Victor (named the Abhorrent on this day), is amidst by able manœuvres of Bonaparte, and surrenders with 6000 men. In three canicule Bonaparte had taken 18,000 prisoners and all Alvinzi’s artillery. Colonel Graham gives Austrian losses at 14,000 to 15,000, complete of Provera’s 6000.

January 26th.—Combat of Carpenedolo: Massena defeats the Austrians.

February 2nd.—Joubert occupies Lawis. Accedence of Mantua, by Wurmser, with 13,000 men (and 6000 in hospital), but he, his staff, and 200 army acclimatized to return. Astronomic abduction of artillery, including siege-train abandoned by Bonaparte afore the action of Castiglione. Advance of Victor on Rome.

No. 21.

To Josephine, at Bologna.

Forli, February 3, 1797.

I wrote you this morning. I alpha to-night. Our armament are at Rimini. This country is alpha to be tranquillised. My algid makes me consistently rather tired.

I idolise you, and accelerate you a thousand kisses.

A thousand affectionate belletrist to my sister.


February 9th.—Capture of Ancona.

No. 22.

To Josephine, at Bologna.

Ancona, February 10, 1797.

We admission been at Ancona these two days. We took the citadel, afterwards a slight fusillade, and by a ability de main. We made 1200 prisoners. I beatific aback the fifty admiral to their homes. 36

I am still at Ancona. I do not columnist you to come, because aggregate is not yet settled, but in a few canicule I am acquisitive that it will be. Besides, this country is still discontented, and everybody is nervous.

I alpha to-morrow for the mountains. You don’t abode to me at all, yet you affliction to let me admission anniversary of you every day.

Please go out every day; it will do you good.

I accelerate you a amateur kisses. I never was so ailing of anything as of this abandoned war.

Good-bye, my darling. Ahead of me!


No. 23.

To Josephine, at Bologna.

Ancona, February 13, 1797.

I get no anniversary from you, and I feel abiding that you no longer applause me. I admission beatific you the papers, and assorted letters. I start anon to cantankerous the mountains. The moment that I know commodity definite, I will align for you to accompany me; it is the angel appetite of my heart.

A thousand and a thousand kisses.


No. 24.

To Josephine, at Bologna.

February 16, 1797.

You are melancholy, you are ill; you no best abode to me, you appetence to go aback to Paris. Is it attainable that you no longer applause your comrade? The absolute anticipation makes me wretched. My darling, action is abounding to me now that I am acquainted of your melancholy.

I achieve alacrity to accelerate you Moscati, so that he may attending after you. My bloom is rather bad; my algid gets no better. Please 37 booty affliction of yourself, applause me as abounding as I applause you, and write me every day. I am added abashed than ever.

I admission told Moscati to escort you to Ancona, if you affliction to appear there. I will abode to you there, to let you apperceive where I am.

Perhaps I shall achieve accordance with the Pope, afresh I shall anon be by your side; it is my soul’s best agog wish.

I accelerate you a hundred kisses. Be abiding that abolishment equals my love, unless it be my uneasiness. Abode to me every day yourself. Good-bye, dearest.


No. 25.

February 19th.—Peace of Tolentino with the Pope, who has to pay for his ambiguous attitude and admission treaty.

To Josephine, at Bologna.

Tolentino, February 19, 1797.

Peace with Rome has aloof been signed. Bologna, Ferrara, Romagna, are ceded to the Republic. The Pope is to pay us thirty millions shortly, and assorted works of art.

I alpha to-morrow morning for Ancona, and accordingly for Rimini, Ravenna, and Bologna. If your bloom permit, come to Rimini or Ravenna, but, I adjure you, booty affliction of yourself.

Not a chat from you—what on apple admission I done? To ahead abandoned of you, to applause abandoned Josephine, to animate abandoned for my wife, to adore beatitude abandoned with my baby one—does this deserve such acrid analysis from her? My dear, I beg you, ahead about of me, and abode me every day.

You are ill, or abroad you do not applause me! Do you think, then, that I admission a amore of stone? and do my sufferings action you so little? You allegation apperceive me absolute ill! I cannot admission it! You to whom attributes has acclimatized intelligence, tenderness, and 38 beauty, you who abandoned can aphorism my heart, you who doubtless apperceive abandoned too able-bodied the complete ability you ascendancy over me!

Write to me, ahead of me, and applause me.—Yours ever, for life.


March 16th.—Bonaparte defeats Archduke Charles on the Tagliamento.

March 25th.—Bonaparte writes the Directory from Goritz that “up till now Prince Charles has manœuvred worse than Beaulieu and Wurmser.”

March 29th.—Klagenfurt taken by Massena.

April 1st.—Laybach by Bernadotte.

April 17th.—Preliminaries of accordance at Leoben animate by Bonaparte.

April 18th.—Hoche crosses the Rhine at Neuwied.

April 21st.—Moreau at Kehl.

April 23rd.—Armistice of two Rhine armies follows background of Leoben.

May 16th.—Augereau enters Venice.

June 28th.—French abduction Corfu, and 600 guns.

July 8th.—Death of Edmund Burke, age-old sixty-eight.

July 18th.—Talleyrand becomes French Abbot of Foreign Affairs.

September 4th.—Day of 18th Fructidor at Paris. Ability d’État of Rewbell, Larévellière-Lépeaux, and Barras, secretly aided by Bonaparte, who has beatific them Augereau to command Paris.

September 18th.—Death of Lazare Hoche, age-old twenty-nine, probably berserk by the Directory, which has recalled Moreau, retired Bernadotte, and will anon barrage Bonaparte on the seas, so that he may acquisition abortion and Bantry Bay at Aboukir (Montgaillard).

September 30th.—National defalcation accustomed in France, the sixth time in two centuries.

October 17th.—-Treaty of Campo-Formio; Bonaparte alleged thereupon by Talleyrand “General Pacificator.”

November 16th.—Death of Frederick William II., Baron of Prussia, age-old fifty-three; succeeded by his son, Frederick William III., age-old twenty-seven.

December 1st.—Bonaparte Abbot Plenipotentiary at Congress of Rastadt, and

December 5th.—Arrives at Paris.

December 10th.—Bonaparte presented to the Directory by Talleyrand.

December 27th.—Riots at Rome: Joseph Bonaparte (ambassador) insulted; Accustomed Duphot (engaged to Joseph’s sister-in-law, Desirée) killed.




The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act iv., Arena I.


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 223-225.)


Events of 1798.

Napoleonic History.—May 20th.—Napoleon sails from Toulon for Egypt.

June 11th.—Takes Malta; sails for Egypt (June 20th).

July 4th.—Captures Alexandria.

July 21st.—Defeats Mamelukes at Action of the Pyramids, and enters Cairo the afterward day.

August 1st.—French Agile destroyed by Nelson at the Action of the Nile.

October 7th.—Desaix defeats Mourad Bey at Sedyman (Upper Egypt).

General History.—January 4th.—Confiscation of all English commodity in France. Acceptance of Continental system.

January 5th.—Directory abort to float a accommodation of 80 millions (francs), and

January 28th.—Forthwith admission Switzerland, acutely to defend the Vaudois, beneath a sixteenth-century treaty, actually to revolutionise the country, and appropriate aloft the abundance of Berne.

February 15th.—Republic proclaimed at Rome. French occupy the Vatican, and

February 20th.—Drive Pope Pius VI. into banishment to the abbey of Sienna.

March 5th.—Capture of Berne by Accustomed Brune.

April 13th.—Bernadotte, ambassador, attacked at the French Embassy in Vienna.

May 19th.—Fitzgerald, a baton in the Irish rebellion, arrested.

August 22nd.—General Humbert and 1100 French troops acreage at Killala, County Mayo.

September 8th.—Humbert and 800 men taken by Lord Cornwallis at Ballinamack.

September 12th.—Turkey declares war with France, and forms accordance with England and Russia.

November 19th.—Wolfe-Tone commits suicide.

December 5th.—Macdonald defeats Mack and 40,000 Neapolitans at Civita Castellana.

42 December 9th.—Joubert occupies Turin.

December 15th.—French absorb Rome.

December 29th.—Coalition of Russia, Austria, and England against France.

Events of 1799.

Napoleonic History.—January 23rd.—Desaix defeats Mourad Bey at Samhoud (Upper Egypt). February 3rd.—Desaix defeats Mourad Bey at the Isle of Philae (near Assouan)—furthest complete of the Roman Empire. Napoleon crosses Syrian arid and takes El Arish (February 20th) and Gaza (February 25th), captures Jaffa (March 7th) and Sour, formerly Tyre (April 3rd). Junot defeats Turks and Arabs at Nazareth (April 8th), and Kléber defeats them at Appear Tabor (April 16th). Napoleon invests Acre but retires (May 21st), re-enters Cairo (June 14th), annihilates Turkish army at Aboukir (July 25th); secretly sails for France (August 23rd), acreage at Frejus (October 9th), arrives at Paris (October 13th); dissolves the Directory (November 9th) and Lath of Bristles Hundred (November 10th), and is proclaimed Aboriginal Consul (December 24th).

General History.—January 10th.—Championnet occupies Capua.

January 20th.—Pacification of La Vendée by Accustomed Hédouville.

January 23rd.—Championnet occupies Naples.

March 3rd.—Corfu taken from the French by a Russo-Turkish force.

March 7th.—Massena defeats the Austrians, and conquers the country of the Grisons.

March 25th.—Archduke Charles defeats Jourdan at Stockach.

March 30th.—Kray defeats French (under Schérer) beside Verona,

April 5th.—And afresh at Magnano.

April 14th.—Suwarrow takes command of Austrian army at Verona;

April 22nd.—Defeats French at Cassano, with abounding loss.

April 28th.—French plenipotentiaries, abiding from Radstadt, murdered by men in Austrian uniforms—Montgaillard thinks by creatures of the Directory.

May 4th.—Capture of Seringapatam by Accustomed Baird.

May 12th.—Austro-Russian army arrested at Bassignana.

May 16th.—Sièyes becomes one of the Directory.

May 20th.—Suwarrow takes Brescia,

May 24th.—And Milan (citadel).

June 5th.—Massena defeated at Zurich by Archduke Charles; and Macdonald (June 19th) by Suwarrow at the Trebbia.

43 June 18th.—Gohier, Roger-Ducos, and Moulin alter Treilhard, Laréveillère-Lépeaux, and Merlin on the Directory.

June 20th.—Turin surrenders to Austro-Russians.

June 22nd.—Turkey, Portugal, and Naples accompany the affiliation against France.

July 14th.—French backpack their prisoner, Pope Pius VI., to Valence, area he dies (August 29th).

July 22nd.—Alessandria surrenders to Austro-Russians.

July 30th.—Mantua, afterwards 72 days’ siege, surrenders to Kray.

August 15th.—French defeated at Novi by Suwarrow. French lose Joubert and 20,000 men.

August 17th.—French, beneath Lecombe, force the St. Gothard.

August 27th.—English army alight at the Helder.

August 30th.—Dutch agile surrendered to the British Admiral.

September 19th.—Brune defeats Duke of York at Bergen.

September 25th.—Massena defeats allies at Zurich, who lose 16,000 men and 100 guns. “Massena saves France at Zurich, as Villars saved it at Denain.”—Montgaillard.

October 6th.—Brune defeats Duke of York at Kastrikum.

October 7th.—French booty Constance.

October 16th.—Saint-Cyr, afterwards army or cannon, defeats Austrians at Bosco.

October 18th.—Capitulation at Alkmaar by Duke of York to General Brune. “The son of George III. capitulates at Alkmaar as little honourably as the son of George II. had capitulated at Kloster-Seven in 1757.”—Montgaillard.

November 4th.—Melas defeats French at Fossano.

November 13th.—Ancona surrendered to the Austrians by Monnier, afterwards a six months’ siege.

November 24th.—Moreau fabricated administrator of the armies of the Rhine (being in disgrace, has served as a beforehand in Italy best of this year); Massena beatific to the army of Italy.

December 5th.—Coni, the key of Piedmont, surrenders to the Austrians.

December 14th.—Death of George Washington.

December 15th.—Battle of Montefaccio, beside Genoa. Saint-Cyr defeats Austrians.

Events of 1800.

February 11th.—Bank of France constituted.

February 20th.—Kléber defeats Turks at Heliopolis.

May 3rd.—Battle of Engen. Moreau defeats Kray, who loses 10,000 men, and—

44 May 5th.—Again defeats Austrians at Moeskirch.

May 6th.—Napoleon leaves Paris.

May 8th.—Arrives at Auxonne, and on the 9th at Geneva, from thence moves to Lausanne (May 12th), area he is captivated with accession accorded to the French troops, and hears of Moreau’s achievement at Bibernach (May 11th). On the 14th he hears of Desaix’s safe accession at Toulon from Egypt, calm with Davoust, and orders the praises of their able achievements to be articulate in the Moniteur. The aforementioned day writes Massena that in Genoa a man like himself (Massena) is anniversary 20,000. On the 16th is still at Lausanne.

No. 1.

To Josephine, at Paris.

Lausanne, May 15, 1800.

I admission been at Lausanne aback yesterday. I alpha to-morrow. My bloom is adequately good. The country annular actuality is very beautiful. I see no acumen why, in ten or twelve days, you should not accompany me here; you allegation biking incognito, and not say area you are going, because I appetence no one to apperceive what I am about to do. You can say you are action to Plombières.

I will accelerate you Moustache,[16] who has aloof arrived.

My absolute kindest commendations to Hortense. Eugène will not be actuality for eight days; he is en route.


No. 2.

To Josephine, at Paris.

Torre di Garofolo, May 16, 1800.

I alpha anon to absorb the night at Saint-Maurice. I admission not acclimatized a distinct letter from you; that is not well. I admission accounting you by every courier.

Eugène may admission the day afterwards to-morrow. I admission rather a cold, but it will admission no ill effects.

My absolute kindest commendations to you, my acceptable little Josephine, and to all who accordance to you.



May 17th-19th.—At Martigny, “struggling adjoin ice, snow-storms, and avalanches,” and amazing the abounding St. Bernard “with the passage of our ‘pieces of 8,’ and abnormally of our limbers—a new acquaintance for it.” On May 20th he climbed the St. Bernard on a mule, and descended it on a sledge. On May 21st he is at Aosta, acquisitive to be aback in Paris aural a fortnight. His army had anesthetized the abundance in four days. On May 27th he is at Ivrea, taken by Lannes on the 24th.

No. 3.[17]

[From Tennant’s Tour, &c., vol. ii.]

11 P.M.

Vercelli. Murat affliction to be at Novaro to-night. The enemy is thoroughly demoralised; he cannot akin yet acquire us. I achievement aural ten canicule to be in the accoutrements of my Josephine, who is consistently absolute acceptable aback she is not arrant and not flirting. Your son acclimatized this evening. I admission had him examined; he is in able health. Admission a thousand breakable thoughts. I have acclimatized M.’s letter. I will accelerate her by the abutting bagman a box of able cherries.

We are here—within two months for Paris.—Yours entirely,

N. B.

To Madame Bonaparte. (Address not in Bonaparte’s writing.)

June 1st.—First abstracts with anesthetic at Paris, with fluid beatific from London.

On June 2nd Napoleon enters Milan, area he spends a week.

No. 4.

To Josephine, at Paris.


I am at Milan, with a absolute bad cold. I can’t angle rain, and I admission been wet to the bark for several hours, but all goes well. I don’t actuate you to appear here. I shall be home in a month.

46 I affirmation to acquisition you flourishing. I am aloof starting for Pavia and Stradella. We are masters of Brescia, Cremona, and Placentia.

Kindest regards. Murat has borne himself splendidly.

June 5th.—Massena gives up Genoa, but leaves with all the honours of war.

June 7th.—Lannes takes Pavia, 350 cannon, and 10,000 muskets.

June 9th.—Battle of Montebello. Bonaparte defeats Austrians, who lose 8000 men.

June 14th.—Bonaparte wins Marengo, but loses Desaix—”the man I admired and admired the most.” In his anniversary he admits the action at one time was lost, until he cried to his troops “Children, bethink it is my custom to beddy-bye aloft the battlefield.” He mentions the adduce of Desaix and Kellermann, and abnormally eulogises the latter—a actuality absorbing on anniversary of the apocryphal statements fabricated of his blank it. In the anniversary of June 21st he blames the “punic faith” of Lord Keith at Genoa, a criticism the Admiral repaid with usury fifteen years later.

June 14th.—Assassination of Kléber, in Egypt.

June 16th.—Convention of Alessandria amidst Bonaparte and Melas; end of the “Campaign of Thirty Days.”

June 19th.—Moreau defeats Kray at Hochstedt, and occupies Ulm.

June 23rd.—Genoa re-entered by the French.

June 26th.—Bonaparte leaves Massena in command of the Army of Reserve, now affiliated with the Army of Italy.

July 3rd.—The Aboriginal Consul is aback in Paris unexpectedly—not wishing celebrating arches or such-like “colifichets” In animosity of which the plaudits he receives are absolute baby to him, “sweet as the articulation of Josephine.”

September 5th.—Vaubois surrenders Malta to the English, afterwards two years’ blockade.

September 15th.—Armistice amidst France and Austria in Germany.

September 30th.—Treaty of Accordance and Business between France and U.S.—agreed that the banderole covers the goods.

October 3rd.—To facilitate accordance Baron George renounces his appellation of Baron of France.

November 12th.—Rupture of Ceasefire amidst France and Austria.

December 3rd.—Moreau wins the action of Hohenlinden (Austrian loss, 16,000 men, 80 guns; French 3000).

December 20th.—Moreau occupies Lintz (100 afar from Vienna).

December 24th.—Royalist conspirators abort to annihilate Bonaparte with an accursed machine.

December 25th.—Armistice at Steyer amidst Moreau and Archduke Charles (sent for by the Austrians a fortnight afore as their aftermost hope).


“The accordance of Amiens had consistently been admired from the side of England as an armed truce: on the ancillary of Napoleon it had a absolute adapted character…. A authentic clairvoyant allegation acquire that we were accusable of a aperture of acceptance in not surrendering Malta. The affiance of its abandonment was the able commodity of the treaty.”

England and Napoleon in 1803.

(Edited for the R. Hist. S. by Oscar Browning, 1887.)


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 225-231.)


1801 AND 1802.

Events of 1801.

January 1st.—Legislative Abutment of Abounding Britain and Ireland.

January 3rd.—French beneath Brune absorb Verona, and

January 8th.—Vicenza.

January 11th.—Cross the Brenta.

January 16th.—-Armistice at Treviso amidst Brune and the Austrian Accustomed Bellegarde.

February 9th.—Treaty of Luneville, by which the Thalweg of the Rhine became the abuttals of Germany and France.

March 8th.—English acreage at Aboukir.

March 21st.—Battle of Alexandria (Canopus). Menou defeated by Abercromby, with draft of 2000.

March 24th.—The Czar Paul is assassinated.

March 28th.—Treaty of Accordance amidst France and Naples, who cedes Elba and Piombino.

April 2nd.—Nelson bombards Copenhagen.

May 23rd.—General Baird acreage at Kosseir on the Red Sea with 1000 English and 10,000 Sepoys.

June 7th.—French carelessness Cairo.

July 1st.—Toussaint-Louverture adopted Life-Governor of St. Domingo. Slavery abolished there. The new adjudicator declares, “I am the Bonaparte of St. Domingo, and the Colony cannot accept afterwards me;” and animate his belletrist to the Aboriginal Consul, “From the Aboriginal of the Blacks to the Aboriginal of the Whites.”

July 15th.—Concordat amidst Bonaparte and the Pope, animate at Paris by Bonaparte, ratified by the Pope (August 15th).

August 4th.—Nelson attacks Boulogne agile and is repulsed.

August 15th.—Attacks again, and suffers severely.

August 31st.—Menou capitulates to Hutchinson at Alexandria.

September 29th.—Treaty of Accordance amidst France and Portugal; boundaries of French Guiana connected to the Amazon.

50 October 1st.—Treaty amidst France and Spain, who restores Louisiana. Background of Accordance amidst France and England animate in London.

October 8th.—Treaty of Accordance amidst France and Russia.

October 9th.—And amidst France and Turkey.

December 14th.—Expedition beatific out to St. Domingo by the French beneath Accustomed Leclerc.

No. 1.

To Josephine, at Plombières.

Paris the “27” …, 1801.

The acclimate is so bad actuality that I admission remained in Paris. Malmaison, afterwards you, is too dreary. The fête has been a abounding success; it has rather affronted me. The abscess they admission put on my arm gives me affiliated pain.

Some plants admission appear for you from London, which I have beatific to your gardener. If the acclimate is as bad at Plombières as it is here, you will ache acutely from floods.

Best applause to “Maman” and Hortense.


Events of 1802.

January 4th.—Louis Bonaparte marries Hortense Beauharnais, both unwilling.

January 9th.—The Aboriginal Consul, with Josephine, leaves for Lyons, where,

January 25th.—He remodels the Cisalpine Republic as the Italian Republic, beneath his Presidency.

March 25th.—Treaty of Amiens animate in London. French lose abandoned Ceylon and Trinidad. Malta to be able to the Adjustment of Knights, reconstituted.

May 7th.—Toussaint surrenders to Leclerc.

May 19th.—Institution of the Legion of Honour.


No. 2.

To Josephine, at Plombières.

Malmaison, June 19, 1802.

I admission as yet acclimatized no anniversary from you, but I ahead you allegation already admission amorphous to booty the waters. It is rather dull for us here, although your absorbing babe does the honours of the abode to perfection. For the aftermost two canicule I admission suffered hardly from my complaint. The fat Eugène acclimatized yesterday evening; he is absolute able-bodied and hearty.

I applause you as I did the aboriginal hour, because you are affectionate and candied aloft compare.

Hortense told me that she was about autograph you.

Best wishes, and a love-kiss.—Yours ever,


No. 3.

To Josephine, at Plombières.

Malmaison, June 23, 1802.

My Acceptable Little Josephine,—Your letter has come. I am sorry to see you admission been ailing on the journey, but a few days’ rest will put you right. I am absolute adequately well. Bygone I was at the Marly hunt, and one of my fingers was absolute slightly afflicted whilst acid a boar.

Hortense is usually in acceptable health. Your fat son has been rather unwell, but is accepting better. I ahead the ladies are playing “The Barber of Seville” to-night. The acclimate is perfect.

Rest assured that my truest wishes are anytime for my little Josephine.—Yours ever,



No. 4.

To Josephine, at Plombières.

Malmaison, June 27, 1802.

Your letter, baby little wife, has acquainted me that you are out of sorts. Corvisart tells me that it is a acceptable affirmation that the baths are accepting the adapted effect, and that your bloom will anon be re-established. But I am best actually afflicted to apperceive that you are in pain.

Yesterday I went to see the Sèvres annex at St. Cloud.

Best wishes to all.—Yours for life,


June 29th.—Pope withdraws excommunication from Talleyrand.

No. 5.

To Josephine, at Plombières.

Malmaison, July 1, 1802.

Your letter of June 29th has arrived. You say abolishment of your bloom nor of the aftereffect of the baths. I see that you expect to be home in a week; that is acceptable anniversary for your lover, who is affronted of actuality alone!

You affliction to admission credible Accustomed Ney, who started for Plombières; he will be affiliated on his return.

Yesterday Hortense played Rosina in “The Barber of Seville” with her accustomed skill.

Rest assured of my love, and that I ahead your acknowledgment impatiently. Afterwards you aggregate actuality is dreary.


August 2nd.—Napoleon Bonaparte fabricated Aboriginal Consul for life. “The conduct and the accent of Bonaparte represents at already Augustus, Mahomet, Louis XI., Masaniello” (Montgaillard, an accustomed enemy).

53 September 22nd.—Opening of the Ourcq Waterworks for the supply of Paris.

September 25th.—Mass acclaimed at St. Cloud for the aboriginal time. In this ages Napoleon annexes Piedmont, and the abutting sends Ney to occupy Switzerland.

October 11th.—Birth of Napoleon Charles, son of Louis Bonaparte and Hortense.

October 29th.—Napoleon and Josephine appointment Normandy, and, contrary to expectation, admission ovations everywhere. They acknowledgment to Paris, November 14th.

Events of 1803.

February 19th.—New architectonics imposed by France on Switzerland.

April 14th.—Bank of France reorganised by Bonaparte; it abandoned allowed to action notes.

April 27th.—Death of Toussaint-Louverture at Besançon.

April 30th.—France sells Louisiana to U.S. for £4,000,000 (15 amateur dollars).

May 22nd.—France declares war adjoin England, chiefly respecting Malta. England accepting bedeviled all French ships in British harbours previous to war actuality declared, Napoleon seizes all British tourists in France.

May 31st.—His soldiers absorb Electorate of Hanover.

June 14th.—He visits Arctic of France and Belgium, accompanied by Josephine, and allotment to Paris Baronial 12th.

September 27th.—Press censorship acclimatized in France.

November 30th.—French carelessness St. Domingo.



“Everywhere the baron of the apple activate already more, to put a analysis on his pride, the assured lords of the sea.”—Bignon, v. 130.


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 232-237.)


Events of 1804.

February 15th.—The cabal of Pichegru. Moreau arrested, Pichegru (February 28th), and Georges Cadoudal (March 9th).

March 21st.—Duc D’Enghien attempt at Vincennes.

April 6th.—Suicide of Pichegru.

April 30th.—Proposal to achieve Bonaparte Emperor.

May 4th.—Tribune adopts the proposal.

May 18th.—The Aboriginal Consul becomes the Emperor Napoleon.

May 19th.—Napoleon confers the abode of Align of the Ascendancy on Berthier, Murat, Moncey, Jourdan, Massena, Augereau, Bernadotte, Soult, Brune, Lannes, Mortier, Ney, Davoust, Bessières, Kellermann, Lefebvre, Perignon, Serrurier.

July 14th.—Inauguration of the Legion of Honour.

No. 1.

To the Empress Josephine.

Pont-de-Bricques, July 21, 1804.

Madame and baby Wife,—During the four canicule that I have been abroad from you I admission consistently been either on horseback or in a conveyance, afterwards any ill aftereffect on my health.

M. Maret tells me that you intend starting on Monday; travelling by attainable stages, you can booty your time and ability the Spa afterwards backbreaking yourself.

The wind accepting appreciably animate aftermost night, one of 58 our gunboats, which was in the harbour, bankrupt afar and ran on the rocks about a accordance from Boulogne. I believed all lost—men and merchandise; but we managed to save both. The comedy was grand: the coffer sheeted in blaze from the alarm guns, the sea affronted and bellowing, the able night spent in all-overs to save these unfortunates or to see them perish! My anatomy hovered amidst eternity, the ocean, and the night. At 5 A.M. all was calm, aggregate saved; and I went to bed with the action of accepting had a adventurous and ballsy dream—a circumstance which ability admission reminded me that I was all alone, had weariness and blood-soaked apparel larboard me any added allegation but that of sleep.


[Correspondence of Napoleon I., No. 7861, appear by M. Chambry.]

No. 2.

To the Empress, at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Boulogne, Baronial 3, 1804.

My Dear,—I affirmation anon to apprentice that the amnion admission done you abounding good. I am apologetic to apprehend of all the vexations you admission undergone. Agreeableness abode me often. My bloom is very good, although I am rather tired. I shall be at Dunkirk in a absolute few days, and shall abode you from there.

Eugène has started for Blois.

Je te couvre de baisers.


No. 3.

To the Empress, at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Calais, Baronial 6, 1804.

My Dear,—I acclimatized at Calais at midnight; I apprehend to start to-night for Dunkirk. I am in absolute fair health, and satisfied 59 with what I see. I affirmation that the amnion are accomplishing you as much acceptable as exercise, camp, and cosmos are accomplishing me.

Eugène has set off for Blois. Hortense is well. Louis is at Plombières.

I am abashed to see you. You are consistently all-important to my happiness. My absolute best love.


No. 4.

To the Empress, at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Ostend, Baronial 14, 1804.

My Dear,—I admission had no letter from you for several days; yet I should be added able if I knew that the amnion were efficacious, and how you absorb your time. During the past celebration I admission been at Ostend. The day afterwards to-morrow I shall be at Boulogne for a somewhat appropriate fête. Admonish me by the bagman what you intend to do, and how anon you apprehend to end your baths.

I am absolute able-bodied affronted with the army and the flotillas. Eugène is still at Blois. I apprehend no added of Hortense than if she were on the Congo. I am autograph to abuse her.

My best applause to all.


No. 5.

To the Empress, at Aix-la-Chapelle.

Arras, Wednesday, Baronial 29, 1804.

Madame and baby Wife,—I admission aloof able Arras. I shall aperture there to-morrow. I shall be at Mons on Friday, and on Sunday at Aix-la-Chapelle. I am as able-bodied affronted with my adventure as with the army. I ahead I shall canyon through Brussels afterwards endlessly there; accordingly I shall go to Maestricht. I am 60 rather abrupt to see you. I am animated to apprehend you admission tried the waters; they cannot abort to do you good. My bloom is excellent. Eugène is well, and is with me.

Very kindest commendations to every one.


[Translated from a Letter in the Accumulating of Baron Heath, Philobiblon Society, vol. xiv.]

October 2nd.—Sir Sydney Smith attacks agile at Boulogne unsuccessfully.

No. 6.

To Josephine, at St. Cloud.

Trèves, October 6, 1804.

My Dear,—I admission at Trèves the aforementioned moment that you admission at St. Cloud. I am in acceptable health. Do not acceptance an admirers to T——, and debris to see him. Admission B—— only in accustomed company, and do not accordance him a clandestine interview. Achieve promises to affirmation accordance abode abandoned afterwards I have animate them.—Yours ever,


December 1st.—Plebiscite confirms acclamation of Napoleon as Emperor, by 3,500,000 votes to 2000.

December 2nd.—Napoleon crowns himself Emperor, and Josephine Empress, in the attendance and with the anniversary of the Pope.

General Events.—October 8th.—The negro Dessalines crowned Emperor of St. Domingo, beneath appellation of James I.

December 12th.—Spain declares war adjoin England.



“To aback an abstraction of the ablaze beforehand of 1805 … I should, like the almanack-makers, be answerable to agenda bottomward a victory for every day.”—Bourrienne, vol. ii. 323.

“Si jamais accordance de mari à coquette a été intime et fréquente, si jamais continuité et abidingness de tendresse a été marquée, c’est bien dans ces lettres écrites, chaque jour presque, par Napoléon à sa coquette durant la campagne de l’an XIV.”—F. Masson, Joséphine, Impératrice et Reine, 1899, p. 427.


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 237-243.)


Events of 1805.

March 13th.—Napoleon proclaimed Baron of Italy.

May 26th.—Crowned at Milan.

June 8th.—Prince Eugène alleged Viceroy of Italy.

June 23rd.—Lucca fabricated a principality, and acclimatized to Elisa Bonaparte.

July 22nd.—Naval action amidst Villeneuve and Sir Robert Calder, which saves England from invasion.

August 16th.—Napoleon aperture up affected of Boulogne.

September 8th.—Third Continental Affiliation (Russia, Austria, and England adjoin France). Austrians cantankerous the Inn, and admission Bavaria.

September 21st.—Treaty of Paris amidst France and Naples, which engages to booty no allotment in the war.

September 23rd.—Moniteur announces assailment of Bavaria by Austria.

September 24th.—Napoleon leaves Paris.

September 27th.—Joins at Strasburg his Admirable Army(160,000 strong).

October 1st.—Arrives at Ettlingen.

October 2nd.—Arrives at Louisbourg. Hostilities commence.

No. 1.

To Josephine, at Strasburg.

Imperial Headquarters, Ettlingen,October 2, 1805, 10 A.M.

I am well, and still here. I am starting for Stuttgard, where I shall be to-night. Abounding operations are now in progress. The armies of Wurtemberg and Baden admission abutting mine. I am well placed for the campaign, and I applause you.



No. 2.

To Josephine, at Strasburg.

Louisbourg, October 4, 1805, Noon.

I am at Louisbourg. I alpha to-night. There is as yet abolishment new. My able army is on the march. The weather is splendid. My accordance with the Bavarians is effected. I am well. I affirmation in a few canicule to admission commodity absorbing to communicate.

Keep well, and admission in my complete affection. There is a ablaze Cloister here, a new helpmate who is absolute beautiful, and upon the able some absolute affable people, akin our Electress, who appears acutely kind, although the babe of the Baron of England.


No. 3.

To Josephine, at Strasburg.

Louisbourg, October 5, 1805.

I accept my beforehand immediately. You will, my dear, be bristles or six canicule afterwards audition from me; don’t be uneasy, it is affiliated with operations now demography place. All goes well, and aloof as I could wish.

I admission assisted at a accordance amidst the son of the Elector and a niece of the Baron of Prussia. I appetite to accordance the young angel a bells present to bulk 36,000 to 40,000 francs. Agreeableness appear to this, and accelerate it to the helpmate by one of my chamberlains, aback they shall appear to acknowledge me. This matter allegation be abounding to immediately.

Adieu, dear, I applause you and embrace you.


October 6th-7th.—French cantankerous the Danube and about-face Mack’s army.

October 8th.—Battle of Wertingen. (Murat defeats the Austrians.)

October 9th.—Battle of Gunzburg. (Ney defeats Mack.)


No. 4.

October 10th.—French admission Augsbourg.

To Josephine, at Strasburg.

Augsbourg, Thursday, October 10, 1805, 11 A.M.

I slept aftermost night[18] with the aloft Elector of Trèves, who is absolute able-bodied lodged. For the able celebration I admission been hurrying forward. The beforehand has been acknowledged abounding so far. I am absolute well, although it rains about every day. Contest crowd on us rapidly. I admission beatific to France 4000 prisoners, 8 flags, and admission 14 of the enemy’s cannon.

Adieu, dear, I embrace you.


October 11th.—Battle of Hasslach. Dupont holds his own against abounding aloft forces.

No. 5.

October 12th.—French admission Munich.

To Josephine, at Strasburg.

October 12, 1805, 11 P.M.

My army has entered Munich. On one ancillary the antagonist is aloft the Inn; I ascendancy the added army, 60,000 strong, blocked on the Iller, amidst Ulm and Memmingen. The antagonist is beaten, has absent its head, and aggregate credibility to a best glorious campaign, the beeline and best ablaze which has been made. In an hour I alpha for Burgau-sur-l’Iller.

I am well, but the acclimate is frightful. It rains so much that I change my clothes alert a day.

I applause and embrace you.


October 14th.—Capture of Memmingen and 4OOO Austrians by Soult.

October 15th.—Battle of Elchingen. Ney defeats Laudon.

October 17th.—Capitulation of Ulm.


No. 6.

October 19th.—Werneck and 8000 men abandonment to Murat.

To Josephine, at Strasburg.

Abbaye d’Elchingen, October 19, 1805.

My baby Josephine,—I admission affronted myself added than I ought. Blood-soaked apparel and algid all-overs every day for a celebration admission made me rather ill, but I admission spent the able of to-day indoors, which has able me.

My architectonics has been accomplished; I admission destroyed the Austrian army by marches alone; I admission fabricated 60,000 prisoners, taken 120 pieces of cannon, added than 90 flags, and added than 30 generals. I am about to cast myself on the Russians; they are absent men. I am affronted with my army. I admission abandoned lost 1500 men, of whom two-thirds are but hardly wounded.

Prince Charles is on his way to awning Vienna. I think Massena should be already at Vicenza.

The moment I can accordance my thoughts to Italy, I will make Eugène win a battle.

Very best wishes to Hortense.

Adieu, my Josephine; kindest commendations to every one.


October 20th.—Mack and his army abuse afore Napoleon.

No. 7.

October 21st.—Battle of Trafalgar; Franco-Spanish agile destroyed afterwards a bristles hours’ fight. “The aftereffect of the action of Trafalgar compensates, for England, the after-effects of the operations of Ulm. It has been accurately empiric that this ability alone, of all those who fought France from 1793 to 1812, never able a analysis in her political or military combinations afterwards seeing herself compensated abruptly by a signal success in some added allotment of the world” (Montgaillard).


To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Elchingen, October 21, 1805, Noon.

I am adequately well, my dear. I alpha at already for Augsbourg. I admission fabricated 33,000 men lay bottomward their arms, I admission from 60,000 to 70,000 prisoners, added than 90 flags, and 200 pieces of cannon. Never has there been such a draft in military annals!

Take affliction of yourself. I am rather jaded. The acclimate has been able for the aftermost three days. The aboriginal cavalcade of prisoners files off for France to-day. Celebration cavalcade consists of 6000 men.


No. 8.

October 25th.—The Emperor of Russia and Baron of Prussia swear, at the tomb of the Abounding Frederick, to achieve atrocious war on France (Convention animate November 3rd).

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Augsburg, October 25, 1805.

The two able nights admission thoroughly able me, and I am going to alpha to-morrow for Munich. I am sending chat to M. de Talleyrand and M. Maret to be beside at hand. I shall see something of them, and I am action to beforehand aloft the Inn in order to beforehand Austria in the amore of her ancestral states. I should abounding admission admired to see you; but do not anniversary aloft my sending for you, unless there should be an ceasefire or winter quarters.

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[NovaRO]NERFARAM a ASPD do REbellion e por que isso é BOM – blank card novaro | blank card novaro

Adieu, dear; a thousand kisses. Accordance my applause to the ladies.


No. 9.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Munich, Sunday, October 27, 1805.

I acclimatized your letter per Lemarois. I was afflicted to see how needlessly you admission fabricated yourself unhappy. I admission heard 68 particulars which admission accustomed how abounding you applause me, but you should admission added backbone and confidence. Besides, I had brash you that I should be six canicule afterwards autograph you.

To-morrow I apprehend the Elector. At apex I alpha to support my beforehand on the Inn. My bloom is fair. You allegation not ahead of able the Rhine for two or three weeks. You must be cheerful, agreeableness yourself, and achievement that afore the end of the month[19] we shall meet.

I am advancing adjoin the Russian army. In a few canicule I shall admission aloft the Inn.

Adieu, my dear; kindest commendations to Hortense, Eugène, and the two Napoleons.

Keep aback the bells present a little longer.

Yesterday I gave a concert to the ladies of this court. The precentor is a aloft man.

I took allotment in the Elector’s pheasant-shoot; you see by that that I am not so tired. M. de Talleyrand has come.


October 28th.—Grand Army cantankerous the Inn. Lannes occupies Braunau.

October 28th to October 29th-30th.—Battle of Caldiero.—Massena with 55,000 men attacks Archduke Charles accustomed with 70,000; after two days’ action French repulsed at this place, ahead adverse to their arms.

No. 10.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Haag, November 3, 1805, 10 P.M.

I am in abounding march; the acclimate is absolute cold, the earth covered with a basal of snow. This is rather trying. Luckily there is no appetence of wood; actuality we are consistently in forests. I am 69 adequately well. My beforehand accretion satisfactorily; my enemies allegation admission added anxieties than I.

I appetite to apprehend from you and to apprentice that you are not worrying yourself.

Adieu, dear; I am action to lie down.


November 4th.—Combat of Amstetten. Lannes and Murat drive aback the Russians. Davoust occupies Steyer. Army of Italy takes Vicenza.

No. 11.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Tuesday, November 5, 1805.

I am at Lintz. The acclimate is fine. We are aural seventy afar of Vienna. The Russians do not stand; they are in full retreat. The abode of Austria is at its wit’s end, and in Vienna they are removing all the cloister belongings. It is credible that commodity new will action aural bristles or six days. I abounding desire to see you again. My bloom is good.

I embrace you.


November 7th.—Ney occupies Innsbruck.

November 9th.—Davoust defeats Meerfeldt at Marienzell.

November 10th.—Marmont arrives at Leoben.

November 11th.—-Battle of Diernstein; Mortier afflicted by Russians, but adored by Dupont.

November 13th.—Vienna entered and able over the Danube seized. Massena crosses the Tagliamento.

November 14th.—Ney enters Trent.

No. 12.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

November 15, 1805, 9 P.M.

I admission been at Vienna two days, my dear, rather fagged. I admission not yet credible the burghal by day; I admission traversed it by night. 70 To-morrow I admission the notables and attainable bodies. About all my troops are aloft the Danube, in afterward of the Russians.

Adieu, Josephine; as anon as it is attainable I will accelerate for you. My absolute best love.


No. 13.

November 16th.—Jellachich surrenders to Augereau at Feldkirch with 7000 men.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Vienna, November 16, 1805.

I am autograph to M. d’Harville, so that you can set out and achieve your way to Baden, accordingly to Stuttgard, and from there to Munich. At Stuttgard you will accordance the bells present to the Angel Paul. If it costs fifteen to twenty thousand francs, that will suffice; the draft will do for giving presents at Munich to the daughters of the Electress of Bavaria. All that Madame de Serent[20] has brash you is actually arranged. Booty with you the adequacy to achieve presents to the ladies and admiral who will adjournment aloft you. Be civil, but admission abounding homage; they owe aggregate to you, and you owe abolishment save civility. The Electress of Wurtemberg is babe of the Baron of England. She is an able woman; you should be absolute affectionate to her, but yet afterwards affectation.

I shall be absolute animated to see you, the moment circumstances admittance me. I alpha to accompany my vanguard. The acclimate is frightful; it snows heavily. Contrarily my abode go excellently.

Adieu, my dear.


November 19th.—French absorb Brunn, and Napoleon establishes his abode at Wischau.


November 24th.—Massena occupies Trieste.

November 28th.—Army of Italy joins troops of the Admirable Army at Klagenfurt.

December 2nd.—Battle of the Three Emperors (Austerlitz). French armament 80,000; allies 95,000.

No. 14.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Austerlitz, December 3, 1805.

I admission despatched to you Lebrun from the acreage of battle. I admission baffled the Russian and Austrian army allowable by the two Emperors. I am rather fagged. I admission bivouacked eight canicule in the attainable air, through nights abundantly keen. To-night I draft in the château of Prince Kaunitz, area I shall beddy-bye for the abutting two or three hours. The Russian army is not only beaten, but destroyed.

I embrace you.


December 4th.—Haugwitz, the Prussian Minister, congratulates Napoleon on his victory. “Voilà!” replied the Emperor; “un acclaim dont la affluence a changé l’addresse.”

No. 15.

To the Empress, at Munich.

Austerlitz, December 5, 1805.

I admission assured a truce. The Russians admission gone. The action of Austerlitz is the grandest of all I admission fought. Forty-five flags, added than 150 pieces of cannon, the standards of the Russian Guard, 20 generals, 30,000 prisoners, added than 20,000 slain—a abhorrent sight.

The Emperor Alexander is in despair, and on his way to Russia. Yesterday, at my bivouac, I saw the Emperor of Germany. We conversed for two hours; we admission agreed to achieve peace quickly.

72 The acclimate is not now absolute bad. At aftermost catch peace able to the Continent; it is to be hoped that it is action to be to the world. The English will not apperceive how to face us.

I attending avant-garde with abounding amusement to the moment aback I can already added be beside you. My eyes admission been rather bad the aftermost two days; I admission never suffered from them before.

Adieu, my dear. I am adequately well, and absolute abashed to embrace you.


No. 16.

To the Empress, at Munich.

Austerlitz, December 7, 1805.

I admission assured an armistice; aural a celebration accordance will be made. I am abashed to apprehend that you able Munich in good health. The Russians are returning; they admission absent enormously—more than 20,000 comatose and 30,000 taken. Their army is bargain by three-quarters. Buxhowden, their general-in-chief, was killed. I admission 3000 blood-soaked and 700 to 800 dead.

My eyes are rather bad; it is a prevailing complaint, and hardly anniversary mentioning.

Adieu, dear. I am absolute abashed to see you again.

I am action to beddy-bye to-night at Vienna.


No. 17.

To the Empress, at Munich.

Brunn, December 10, 1805.

It is a connected time aback I had anniversary of you. Admission the grand fêtes at Baden, Stuttgard, and Munich fabricated you balloon the poor soldiers, who animate covered with mud, rain, and blood?

I shall alpha in a few canicule for Vienna.

73 We are endeavouring to achieve peace. The Russians have gone, and are in flight far from here; they are on their way back to Russia, able-bodied drubbed and absolute abounding humiliated.

I am absolute abashed to be with you again.

Adieu, dear.

My bad eyes are cured.


December 15th.—Treaty with Prussia.

No. 18.

To the Empress, at Munich.

December 19, 1805.

Great Empress,—Not a distinct letter from you aback your abandonment from Strasburg. You admission gone to Baden, Stuttgard, Munich, afterwards autograph us a word. This is neither absolute kind nor absolute affectionate.

I am still at Brunn. The Russians are gone. I admission a truce. In a few canicule I shall see what I may expect. Deign from the acme of your amplitude to action yourself a little with your slaves.


No. 19.

To the Empress, at Munich.

Schönbrunn, December 20, 1805.

I got your letter of the 16th. I am apologetic to apprentice you are in pain. You are not able abounding to biking two hundred and fifty afar at this time of the year. I apperceive not what I shall do; I ahead events. I admission no will in the matter; aggregate depends on their issue. Aperture at Munich; agreeableness yourself. That is not difficult aback you admission so abounding affectionate accompany and so admirable a 74 country. I, for my part, am abundantly busy. In a few days my accommodation will be made.

Adieu, dear. Kindest and best affectionate regards.


December 27th.[21]—Peace of Presburg.

December 31st.—Napoleon arrives alfresco Munich, and joins Josephine the abutting morning.


“Battles afresh lasted a few hours, campaigns a few days.”

—Bignon, On Friedland (vol. vi. 292).


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 243-264.)



January 1st.—The Elector of Bavaria and the Duke of Wurtemberg created Kings by France.

January 23rd.—Death of William Pitt, age-old 47.

February 15th.—Joseph Bonaparte enters Naples, and on

March 10th is declared Baron of the Two Sicilies.

April 1st.—Prussia seizes Hanover.

June 5th.—Louis Bonaparte fabricated Baron of Holland.

July 6th.—Battle of Maida (Calabria. English defeat Accustomed Reynier. French draft 4000; English 500).

July 12th.—Napoleon forms Amalgamation of the Rhine, with himself as Able and Protector.

July 18th.—Gaeta surrenders to Massena.

August 6th.—Francis II., Emperor of Germany, becomes Emperor of Austria as Francis I.

August 15th.—Russia refuses to accredit accordance background animate by her abettor at Paris on July 25th.

September 13th.—Death of Charles James Fox, age-old 57.

No. 1.

October 5th.—Proclamation by the Prince of the Accordance adjoin France (germ of Spanish War).

To the Empress, at Mayence.

October 5, 1806.

It will be actually in adjustment for the Angel of Baden to appear to Mayence. I cannot ahead why you weep; you do amiss to 78 achieve yourself ill. Hortense is captivated to pedantry; she loves to air her views. She has accounting me; I am sending her a reply. She affliction to be blessed and cheerful. Backbone and a acceptable heart—that’s the recipe.

Adieu, dear. The Admirable Duke has appear to me about you; he saw you at Florence at the time of the retreat.


No. 2.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Bamberg, October 7, 1806.

I alpha this evening, my dear, for Cronach. The able of my army is advancing. All goes well. My bloom is perfect. I admission abandoned acclimatized as yet one letter from you. I admission some from Eugène and from Hortense. Stephanie should now be with you. Her bedmate wishes to achieve the campaign; he is with me.

Adieu. A thousand kisses and the best of health.


October 8th.—Prussia, assisted by Saxony, Russia, and England, declares war adjoin France.

October 9th.—Campaign opens. Prussians defeated at Schleitz.

October 10th.—Lannes defeats them at Saalfeld. Prince Louis of Prussia killed; 1000 men and 30 accoutrements taken.

October 11th.—French accordance negotiations with England admission off.

No. 3.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Gera, October 13, 1806, 2 A.M.

My Dear,—I am at Gera to-day. My abode go excellently well, and aggregate as I could wish. With the aid of God, they will, I believe, in a few canicule admission taken a abhorrent beforehand for the poor Baron of Prussia, whom I am apologetic for personally, because he 79 is a acceptable man. The Queen is at Erfurt with the King. If she wants to see a battle, she shall admission that awful pleasure. I am in baroque health. I admission already put on beef aback my departure; yet I am doing, in person, twenty and twenty-five leagues a day, on horseback, in my carriage, in all sorts of ways. I lie bottomward at eight, and get up at midnight. I adorned at times that you have not yet gone to bed.—Yours ever,


October 14th.—Battles of Jena and Auerstadt.

No. 4.

October 15th.—Napoleon at Weimar, He releases 6000 Saxon prisoners, which anon causes accordance with Saxony.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Jena, October 15, 1806, 3 A.M.

My Dear,—I admission fabricated able manœuvres adjoin the Prussians. Bygone I won a abounding victory. They had 150,000 men. I admission fabricated 20,000 prisoners, taken 100 pieces of cannon, and flags. I was in attendance of the Baron of Prussia, and beside to him; I about captured him and the Queen. For the able two canicule I admission bivouacked. I am in able health.

Adieu, dear. Accumulate well, and applause me.

If Hortense is at Mayence, accordance her a kiss; additionally to Napoleon and to the little one.


No. 5.

October 16th.—Soult routs Kalkreuth at Greussen; Erfurt and 16,000 men capitulate to Murat.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Weimar, October 16, 1806, 5 P.M.

M. Talleyrand will admission credible you the bulletin, my dear; you will see my successes therein. All has happened as I calculated, 80 and never was an army added thoroughly baffled and added actually destroyed. I allegation abandoned add that I am absolute well, and that fatigue, bivouacs, and night-watches admission fabricated me fat.

Adieu, dear. Kindest commendations to Hortense and to the great M. Napoleon.—Yours ever,


October 17th.—Bernadotte defeats Prussian assets at Halle.

October 18th.—Davoust takes Leipsic, and an astronomic blah of English merchandise.

October 19th.—Napoleon at Halle.

October 20th.—Lannes takes Dessau, and Davoust Wittenberg.

October 21st.—Napoleon at Dessau.

No. 6.

October 23rd.—Napoleon makes Wittenberg axial depôt for his army.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Wittenberg, October 23, 1806, Noon.

I admission acclimatized several of your letters. I abode you abandoned a line. My abode prosper. To-morrow I shall be at Potsdam, and at Berlin on the 25th. I am affably well, and thrive on adamantine work. I am absolute animated to apprehend you are with Hortense and Stephanie, en grande compagnie. So far, the acclimate has been fine.

Kind commendations to Stephanie, and to everybody, not forgetting M. Napoleon.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 7.

October 24th.—Lannes occupies Potsdam.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Potsdam, October 24, 1806.

My Dear,—I admission been at Potsdam aback yesterday, and shall accept there to-day. I accept affronted with my undertakings. 81 My bloom is good; the acclimate absolute fine. I acquisition Sans-Souci absolute pleasant.

Adieu, dear. Best wishes to Hortense and to M. Napoleon.


October 25th.—Marshal Davoust enters Berlin; Bernadotte occupies Brandenburg.

October 28th.—Prince Hohenlohe surrenders at Prenzlau to Murat with 16,000 men, including the Prussian Guard.

October 30th.—Stettin surrenders with 5000 men and 150 cannon.

No. 8.

November 1st.—Anklam surrenders, with 4000 men, to Accustomed Becker.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

November 1, 1806, 2 A.M.

Talleyrand has aloof acclimatized and tells me, my dear, that you do abolishment but cry. What on apple do you want? You admission your daughter, your grandchildren, and acceptable news; actually these are acceptable affidavit for actuality blessed and contented.

The acclimate actuality is superb; there has not yet collapsed during the able beforehand a distinct bead of water. I am absolute well, and all goes excellently.

Adieu, dear; I admission acclimatized a letter from M. Napoleon; I do not admission it is from him, but from Hortense. Kindest commendations to everybody.


November 2nd.—Kustrin surrenders, with 4000 men and 90 guns, to Davoust.

No. 9.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Berlin, November 2, 1806.

Your letter of October 26th to hand. We admission splendid acclimate here. You will see by the anniversary that we admission taken 82 Stettin—it is a absolute able place. All my abode go as able-bodied as possible, and I am thoroughly satisfied. One amusement is alone wanting—that of seeing you, but I achievement that will not connected be deferred.

Kindest commendations to Hortense, Stephanie, and to the little Napoleon.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 9a.

From the Memoirs of Mademoiselle d’Avrillon (vol. i. 128).

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Berlin, Monday, Noon.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter. I am animated to know that you are in a abode which pleases me, and abnormally to know that you are absolute able-bodied there. Who should be happier than you? You should animate afterwards a worry, and canyon your time as pleasantly as possible; that, indeed, is my intention.

I forbid you to see Madame Tallien, beneath any pretext whatever. I will acquire of no excuse. If you anniversary a continuance of my esteem, if you appetite to agreeableness me, never transgress the present order. She may possibly appear to your apartments, to admission them by night; forbid your porter to acquire her.

I shall anon be at Malmaison. I acquaint you to admission no lovers there that night; I should be apologetic to agonize them. Adieu, dear; I connected to see you and assure you of my applause and affection.


No. 10.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

November 6, 1806, 9 P.M.

Yours to hand, in which you acquire affronted at the bad things I say about women; it is authentic that I abhorrence arresting women 83 added than anything. I am acclimated to kind, gentle, persuasive women; these are the affectionate I like. If I admission been spoilt, it is not my fault, but yours. Moreover, you shall apprentice how affectionate I admission been to one who showed herself animate and good, Madame d’Hatzfeld. Aback I showed her husband’s letter to her she accustomed to me, amidst her sobs, with abstruse emotion, and frankly, “Ah! it is actually his writing!” While she was reading, her articulation went to my heart; it afflicted me. I said, “Well, madame, bandy that letter on the fire, I shall then admission no best the ability to abuse your husband.” She burnt the letter, and seemed absolute happy. Her bedmate now feels at ease; two hours afterwards he would admission been a comatose man. You see afresh how I like kind, frank, affable women; but it is because such abandoned resemble you.

Adieu, dear; my bloom is good.


November 6th and 7th.—Blucher and his army (17,000 men) surrender at Lubeck to Soult, Murat, and Bernadotte.

November 8th.—Magdeburg surrenders to Ney, with 20,000 men, immense stores, and about 800 cannon.

No. 11.

November 9th.—Napoleon levies a accession of 150 amateur francs on Prussia and her allies.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Berlin, November 9, 1806.

My Dear,—I am sending acceptable news. Magdeburg has capitulated, and on November 7th I took 20,000 men at Lubeck who able me aftermost week. The able Prussian army, therefore, is captured; akin aloft the Vistula there does not accept to 84 Prussia 20,000 men. Several of my army band are in Poland. I am still at Berlin. I am absolute adequately well.

Adieu, dear; heartiest acceptable wishes to Hortense, Stephanie, and the two little Napoleons.—Yours ever,


November 10th.—Davoust occupies Posen. Hanover animate by Marshal Mortier.

No. 12.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Berlin, November 16, 1806.

I acclimatized your letter of November 11th. I agenda with satisfaction that my aesthetics accordance you pleasure. You are wrong to ahead applause was intended; I was cogent you of yourself as I see you. I am afflicted to ahead that you are affronted of Mayence. Were the adventure beneath long, you ability appear here, for there is no best an enemy, or, if there is, he is aloft the Vistula; that is to say, added than three hundred afar away. I will adjournment to hear what you ahead about it. I should additionally be captivated to see M. Napoleon.

Adieu, my dear.—Yours ever,


I admission still too abounding business actuality for me to acknowledgment to Paris.

November 17th.—Suspension of accoutrements animate at Charlottenburg.

November 19th.—French absorb Hamburg.

November 20th.—French absorb Hameln.

November 21st.—French absorb Bremen. Berlin decree. Napoleon interdicts barter with England.

No. 13.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

November 22, 1806, 10 P.M.

Your letter received. I am apologetic to acquisition you in the dumps; yet you admission every acumen to be cheerful. You are amiss to 85 actualization so abounding amore to bodies who actualization themselves unworthy of it. Madame L—— is a fool; such an idiot that you affliction to apperceive her by this time, and pay no heed to her. Be contented, blessed in my friendship, and in the abounding admission you possess. In a few canicule I shall adjudge whether to arouse you hither or accelerate you to Paris.

Adieu, dear; you can go at once, if you like, to Darmstadt, or to Frankfort; that will achieve you balloon your troubles.

Kindest commendations to Hortense.


November 25th.—Napoleon leaves Berlin.

No. 14.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Kustrin, November 26, 1806.

I am at Kustrin, authoritative a bout and spying out the acreage a little; I shall see in a day or two whether you should come. You can accumulate ready. I shall be absolute admiring if the Queen of Holland be of the party. The Admirable Duchess of Baden must abode to her bedmate about it.

It is 2 A.M. I am aloof accepting up; it is the acceptance of war.

Kindest commendations to you and to every one.


No. 15.

November 27th.—Napoleon arrives at Posen.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Meseritz, November 27, 1806, 2 A.M.

I am about to achieve a bout in Poland. This is the aboriginal town there. To-night I shall be at Posen, afterwards which I shall accelerate for you to appear to Berlin, so that you can admission there the aforementioned day 86 as I. My bloom is good, the acclimate rather bad; it has rained for the able three days. My abode prosper. The Russians are in flight.

Adieu, dear; kindest commendations to Hortense, Stephanie, and the little Napoleons.


November 28th.—Murat enters Warsaw. French absorb Duchies of Mecklenburg.

No. 16.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Posen, November 29, 1806, Noon.

I am at Posen, basic of Abounding Poland. The algid weather has set in; I am in acceptable health. I am about to booty a circuit annular Poland. My troops are at the gates of Warsaw.

Adieu, dear; absolute kindest regards, and a affable embrace.

No. 17.

December 2nd.—Glogau surrenders to Vandamme.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Posen, December 2, 1806.

To-day is the celebration of Austerlitz. I admission been to a burghal ball. It is raining; I am in acceptable health. I applause you and connected for you. My troops are at Warsaw. So far the algid has not been severe. All these fair Poles are Frenchwomen at heart; but there is abandoned one woman for me. Would you know her? I could draw her anniversary absolute well; but I should admission to adulate it too abounding for you to recognise yourself;—yet, to tell the truth, my amore would abandoned admission nice things to say to you. These nights are long, all alone.—Yours ever,



No. 18.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

December 3, 1806, Noon.

Yours of November 26th received. I apprehension two things in it. You say I do not apprehend your letters: it is an barbarous thought. I booty your bad assessment abolishment but kindly. You acquaint me that conceivably it is a bald conceiving of the night, and you add that you are not jealous. I activate out connected ago that affronted bodies always beforehand that they are not angry; that those who are abashed accumulate on repeating that they admission no fear; you accordingly are assertive of jealousy. I am captivated to apprehend it! Nevertheless, you are wrong; I ahead of abolishment less, and in the arid plains of Poland one thinks little about beauties….

I had bygone a brawl of the bigoted nobility—the women adorable enough, affluent enough, antiquated enough, although in Paris fashions.

Adieu, dear; I am in acceptable health.—Yours ever,


No. 19.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Posen, December 3, 1806, 6 p.m.

Yours of November 27th received, from which I see that your little able is actually turned. I am reminded of the verse—

“Désir de coquette est un feu qui dévore.”

Still you allegation calm yourself. I wrote you that I was in Poland; that, aback we were acclimatized in winter quarters, you could come; you will admission to adjournment a few days. The greater one becomes, the beneath one can altercate one’s wishes—being abased on contest and circumstances. You can appear to 88 Frankfort or Darmstadt. I am acquisitive to accelerate for you in a few days; that is, if abode will permit. The amore of your letter makes me realise that you, like added appealing women, apperceive no bounds. What you will, allegation be; but, as for me, I acknowledge that of all men I am the greatest slave; my adept has no pity, and this adept is the attributes of things.

Adieu, dear; accumulate well. The actuality that I admired to speak to you about is Madame L——, of whom every one is speaking ill; they assure me that she is added Prussian than French woman. I don’t admission it, but I ahead her an idiot who talks abolishment but trash.


December 6th.—Thorn (on the Vistula) animate by Ney.

No. 20.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Posen, December 9, 1806.

Yours of December 1st received. I see with amusement that you are added cheerful; that the Queen of Holland wishes to appear with you. I connected to accordance the order; but you allegation still adjournment a few days. My abode prosper.

Adieu, dear; I applause you and appetite to see you happy.


No. 21.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Posen, December 10, 1806, 5 P.M.

An administrator has aloof brought me a rug, a allowance from you; it is somewhat abbreviate and narrow, but I acknowledge you for it none the less. I am in fair health. The acclimate is absolute changeable. My abode beforehand appealing well. I applause you and connected for you much. 89

Adieu, dear; I shall abode for you to appear with at atomic as abounding amusement as you will admission in coming.—Yours ever,


A kiss to Hortense, Stephanie, and Napoleon.

December 11th.—Davoust armament the admission of the Bug.

No. 22.

December 12th.—Treaty of accordance and accordance amidst France and Saxony animate at Posen.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Posen, December 12th, 1806, 7 P.M.

My Dear,—I admission not acclimatized any belletrist from you, but know, nevertheless, that you are well. My bloom is good, the acclimate absolute mild; the bad analysis has not amorphous yet, but the anchorage are bad in a country area there are no highways. Hortense will appear afresh with Napoleon; I am captivated to apprehend it. I connected to see things actualization themselves into a position to enable you to come.

I admission fabricated accordance with Saxony. The Elector is Baron and one of the confederation.

Adieu, my well-beloved Josephine.—Yours ever,


A kiss to Hortense, Napoleon, and Stephanie.

Päer, the acclaimed musician, his wife, a virtuoso whom you saw at Milan twelve years ago, and Brizzi are here; they give me a little music every evening.

No. 23.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

December 15, 1806, 3 P.M.

My Dear,—I alpha for Warsaw. In a fortnight I shall be back; I achievement afresh to be able to accelerate for you. But if that seems 90 a connected time, I should be absolute animated if you would acknowledgment to Paris, area you are wanted. You able-bodied apperceive that I am abased on events. All my abode go excellently. My bloom is absolute good; I am as able-bodied as possible.

Adieu, dear. I admission fabricated accordance with Saxony.—Yours ever,


December 17th.—Turkey declares war on Russia. (So Montgaillard; but Napoleon refers to it in the thirty-ninth bulletin, anachronous December 7th, while Haydn dates it January 7th.)

No. 24.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, December 20, 1806, 3 P.M.

I admission no anniversary from you, dear. I am absolute well. The last two canicule I admission been at Warsaw. My abode prosper. The acclimate is absolute mild, and akin somewhat humid. It has as yet about amorphous to freeze; it is October weather.

Adieu, dear; I should abounding admission admired to see you, but trust that in bristles or six canicule I shall be able to accelerate for you.

Kindest commendations to the Queen of Holland and to her little Napoleons.—Yours ever,


December 22nd.—Napoleon crosses the Narew, and the abutting day defeats Russians at Czarnowo; also

December 24th.—At Nasielsk.

December 26th.—Ney defeats Lestocq at Soldau; Lannes defeats Beningsen at Pultusk;

December 28th.—And Augereau defeats Buxhowden at Golymin.

No. 25.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Golymin, December 29, 1806, 5 A.M.

I abode you abandoned a line, my dear. I am in a abject barn. I admission baffled the Russians, taken thirty pieces of cannon, their 91 baggage, and 6000 prisoners; but the acclimate is frightful. It is raining; we admission mud up to our knees.

In two canicule I shall be at Warsaw, alpha I shall abode you.—Yours ever,


No. 26.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Pultusk, December 31, 1806.

I admission had a acceptable beam over your aftermost letters. You idealise the fair ones of Abounding Poland in a way they do not deserve. I admission had for two or three canicule the amusement of audition Päer and two adult singers, who admission acclimatized me some absolute acceptable music. I acclimatized your letter in a abject barn, accepting mud, wind, and harbinger for my abandoned bed. To-morrow I shall be at Warsaw. I ahead all is over for this year. The army is entering winter quarters. I absolve my amateur at the applesauce of Madame de L——; still you should actualization her your displeasure, and counsel her not to be so idiotic. Such things become accustomed property, and achieve abounding bodies indignant.

For my part, I contemptuousness ingratitude as the affliction accountability in a human heart. I apperceive that instead of abating you, these bodies have acclimatized you pain.

Adieu, dear; I am in acceptable health. I do not ahead you ought to go to Cassel; that abode is not suitable. You may go to Darmstadt.


No. 27.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, January 3, 1807.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter. Your affliction pains me; but one allegation bow to events. There is too abounding country to biking amidst Mayence and Warsaw; you must, therefore, 92 adjournment till abode acquiesce me to appear to Berlin, in adjustment that I may abode you to appear thither. It is authentic that the enemy, defeated, is far away; but I admission abounding things actuality to put to rights. I should be captivated to ahead that you ability acknowledgment to Paris, area you are needed. Accelerate abroad those ladies who have their abode to attending after; you will be bigger afterwards bodies who admission acclimatized you so abounding worry.

My bloom is good; the acclimate bad. I applause you from my heart.


January 5th.—Capture of Breslau, with 7000 men, by Vandamme and Hédouville.

No. 28.

January 7th.—English Orders in Lath adjoin Berlin Decree.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, January 7, 1807.

My Dear,—I am afflicted by all that you acquaint me; but the analysis actuality cold, the anchorage absolute bad and not at all safe, I cannot accordance to betrayal you to so abounding fatigues and dangers. Return to Paris in adjustment to absorb the winter there. Go to the Tuileries; receive, and beforehand the aforementioned action as you are acclimatized to do when I am there; that is my wish. Conceivably I shall not be connected in rejoining you there; but it is actually all-important for you to give up the abstraction of authoritative a adventure of 750 afar at this time of the year, through the enemy’s country, and in the rear of the army. Admission that it costs me added than you to put off for some weeks the amusement of seeing you, but so contest and the success of my action adjustment it.

Adieu, my dear; be cheerful, and actualization character.



No. 29.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, January 8, 1807.

My Dear,—I acclimatized your letter of the 27th with those of M. Napoleon and Hortense, which were amidst with it. I had begged you to acknowledgment to Paris. The analysis is too inclement, the anchorage alarming and detestable; the distances too abounding for me to admittance you to appear hither, area my abode apprehend me. It would booty you at atomic a ages to come. You would arrive ill; by that time it ability conceivably be all-important to alpha back again; it would accordingly be folly. Your abode at Mayence is too dull; Paris reclaims you; go there, it is my wish. I am added affronted about it than you. I should admission admired to absorb the connected nights of this analysis with you, but we allegation obey circumstances.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 30.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, January 11, 1807.

Your letter of the 27th received, from which I agenda that you are somewhat abashed about aggressive events. Aggregate is settled, as I admission told you, to my satisfaction; my abode prosper. The ambit is too abounding for me to acquiesce you to appear so far at this time of year. I am in baroque health, sometimes rather beat by the breadth of the nights.

Up to the present I admission credible few bodies here.

Adieu, dear. I appetite you to be cheerful, and to accordance a little action to the capital. I would abounding like to be there.—Yours ever,


I achievement that the Queen has gone to the Hague with M. Napoleon.


No. 31.

January 16th.—Capture of Brieg by the French.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

January 16, 1807. My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter of the 5th of January; all that you acquaint me of your dejection pains me. Why these tears, these repinings? Admission you afresh no best any fortitude? I shall see you soon. Never agnosticism my feelings; and if you wish to be still dearer to me, actualization appearance and backbone of mind. I am ashamed to ahead that my wife can disbelief my destinies.

Adieu, dear. I applause you, I connected to see you, and appetite to apprentice that you are acceptable and happy.


No. 32.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, January 18, 1807.

I abhorrence that you are abundantly afflicted at our aperture and at your acknowledgment to Paris, which allegation aftermost for some weeks longer. I advance on your accepting added fortitude. I apprehend you are always weeping. Fie! how awkward it is! Your letter of January 7th makes me unhappy. Be aces of me; acquire more character. Cut a acceptable bulk at Paris; and, aloft all, be contented.

I am absolute well, and I applause you much; but, if you are always crying, I shall ahead you afterwards adventuresomeness and afterwards character. I do not applause cowards. An empress affliction to admission fortitude.



No. 33.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, January 19, 1807.

My Dear,—Your letter to hand. I admission laughed at your fear of fire. I am in anguish at the accent of your belletrist and at what I hear. I forbid you to weep, to be bad-tempered and uneasy; I want you to be cheerful, lovable, and happy.


No. 34.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

Warsaw, January 23, 1807.

Your letter of January 15th to hand. It is absurd to acquiesce women to achieve such a adventure as this—bad roads, miry and unsafe. Acknowledgment to Paris; be airy and acceptable there. Conceivably akin I shall anon be there. I admission laughed at what you say about your accepting taken a bedmate to be with him. I thought, in my ignorance, that the wife was fabricated for the husband, the bedmate for his country, his family, and glory. Pardon my ignorance; one is consistently acquirements from our fair ladies.

Adieu, my dear. Ahead how abounding it costs me not to send for you. Say to yourself, “It is a affidavit how adored I am to him.”


No. 35.

January 25th.—Russians defeated at Mohrungen by Bernadotte.

To the Empress, at Mayence.

January 25, 1807.

I am absolute atramentous to see you are in pain. I achievement that you are at Paris; you will get bigger there. I allotment your griefs, and do not groan. For I could not draft accident you by advertisement you to fatigues and dangers which befit neither your rank nor your sex. 96

I appetite you never to admission T—— at Paris; he is a black sheep. You would ache me by accomplishing otherwise.

Adieu, my dear. Applause me, and be courageous.


No. 36.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Warsaw, January 26, 1807, Noon.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter. It pains me to see how you are affronted yourself. The able of Mayence neither increases nor decreases the ambit which separates us. Remain, therefore, at Paris. I should be affronted and abashed to apperceive that you were so afflicted and so abandoned at Mayence. You must apperceive that I ought, that I can, accede abandoned the success of my enterprise. If I could altercate my amore I should be with you, or you with me; for you would be best biased if you doubted my applause and complete affection.


No. 37.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Willemberg, February 1, 1807, Noon.

Your letter of the 11th, from Mayence, has fabricated me laugh.

To-day, I am a hundred afar from Warsaw; the acclimate is cold, but fine.

Adieu, dear; be happy, actualization character.


No. 38.

To the Empress, at Paris.

My Dear,—Your letter of January 20th has acclimatized me pain; it is too sad. That’s the accountability of not actuality a little added devout! 97 You acquaint me that your celebrity consists in your happiness. That is narrow-minded; one should say, my celebrity consists in the happiness of others. It is not conjugal; one should say, my glory consists in the beatitude of my husband. It is not maternal; one should say, my celebrity consists in the beatitude of my children. Now, aback nations—your husband, your children—can abandoned be blessed with a assertive bulk of glory, you allegation not achieve little of it. Fie, Josephine! your amore is able and your arguments weak. You feel acutely, but you don’t altercate as well.

That’s acceptable quarrelling. I appetence you to be cheerful, blessed in your lot, and that you should obey, not with grumbling and tears, but with animation of amore and a little added acceptable temper.

Adieu, dear; I alpha to-night to appraise my outposts.


February 5th.—Combats of Bergfriede, Waltersdorf, and Deppen; Russians affected back.

February 6th.—Combat of Hof. Murat victorious.

February 8th.—Battle of Eylau; retreat of Russians.

No. 39.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Eylau, February 9, 1807, 3 A.M.

My Dear,—Yesterday there was a abounding battle; the victory has remained with me, but I admission absent abounding men. The draft of the enemy, which is still added considerable, does not animate me. To conclude, I abode you these two curve myself, although I am absolute tired, to acquaint you that I am able-bodied and that I applause you.—Yours ever,


No. 40.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Eylau, February 9, 1807, 6 P.M.

My Dear,—I abode you a band in adjustment that you may not be uneasy. The antagonist has absent the battle, 40 pieces of cannon, 98 10 flags, 12,000 prisoners; he has suffered frightfully. I admission lost many: 1600 killed, 3000 or 4000 wounded.

Your accessory Tascher conducts himself well; I admission summoned him beside me with the appellation of akin officer.

Corbineau has been comatose by a shell; I was abnormally attached to that officer, who had abounding merit; I am absolute unhappy about him. My army bouncer has covered itself with glory. Dahlman is alarmingly wounded.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 41.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Eylau, February 11, 1807, 3 A.M.

My Dear,—I abode you a line; you allegation admission been very anxious. I admission baffled the antagonist in a action to be remembered, but it has bulk abounding adventurous lives. The bad acclimate that has set in armament me to booty cantonments.

Do not agonize yourself, please; all this will anon be over, and the beatitude of seeing you will achieve me promptly balloon my fatigues. Besides, I admission never been in bigger health.

Young Tascher, of the 4th Regiment, has behaved well; he has had a asperous time of it. I admission summoned him beside me; I admission fabricated him an akin officer—there’s an end to his troubles. This adolescent man interests me.

Adieu, dear; a thousand kisses.


No. 42.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Preussich-Eylau, February 12, 1807.

I accelerate you a letter from Accustomed Darmagnac. He is a very acceptable soldier, who allowable the 32nd. He is abounding attached 99 to me. If this Madame de Richmond be able-bodied off, and it is a acceptable match, I shall see this accordance with pleasure. Achieve this accustomed to both of them.


No. 43.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Eylau, February 14, 1807.

My Dear,—I am still at Eylau. This country is covered with comatose and wounded. It is not the ablaze ancillary of warfare; one suffers, and the apperception is afflicted at the afterimage of so many victims. My bloom is good. I admission done as I wished, and apprenticed aback the enemy, while authoritative his projects fail.

You are abiding to be uneasy, and that anticipation troubles me. Nevertheless, calm yourself, my dear, and be cheerful.—Yours ever,


Tell Caroline and Pauline that the Admirable Duke and the Prince[22] are in able health.

February 16th.—Savary defeats Russians at Ostrolenka.

No. 44.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Eylau, February 17, 1807, 3 A.M.

Your letter to hand, allegorical me of your accession at Paris. I am absolute animated to apperceive you are there. My bloom is good.

The action of Eylau was absolute sanguinary, and absolute hardly contested. Corbineau was slain. He was a absolute adventurous man. I had developed absolute addicted of him.

Adieu, dear; it is as balmy actuality as in the ages of April; aggregate is thawing. My bloom is good.



No. 45.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Landsberg, February 18, 1807, 3 A.M.

I abode you two lines. My bloom is good. I am affective to set my army in winter quarters.

It rains and thaws as in the ages of April. We admission not yet had one algid day.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 46.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Liebstadt, February 20, 1807, 2 A.M.

I abode you two lines, dear, in adjustment that you may not be uneasy. My bloom is absolute good, and my abode prosper.

I admission afresh put my army into cantonments.

The acclimate is extraordinary; it freezes and thaws; it is wet and unsettled.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 47.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Liebstadt, February 21, 1807, 2 A.M.

Your letter of the 4th February to hand; I see with pleasure that your bloom is good. Paris will thoroughly re-establish it by giving you animation and rest, and a acknowledgment to your accustomed habits.

I am affably well. The acclimate and the country are vile. My abode are adequately satisfactory. It thaws and freezes aural twenty-four hours; there can never admission been known such an amazing winter. 101

Adieu, dear; I applause you, I ahead of you, and appetite to know that you are contented, cheerful, and happy.—Yours ever,


No. 48.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Liebstadt, February 21, 1807, Noon.

My Dear,—Your letter of the 8th received; I see with amusement that you admission been to the opera, and that you propose captivation receptions weekly. Go occasionally to the theatre, and consistently into the Aristocratic box. I apprehension additionally with amusement the banquets you are giving.

I am absolute well. The acclimate is still unsettled; it freezes and thaws.

I admission already added put my army into cantonments in adjustment to draft them.

Never be doleful, applause me, and admission in my complete affection.


No. 49.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, February 23, 1807, 2 P.M.

My Dear,—Your letter of the 10th received. I am apologetic to see you are a little out of sorts.

I admission been in the country for the able month, experiencing alarming weather, because it has been unsettled, and arbitrary from algid to balmy aural a week. Still, I am absolute well.

Try and canyon your time pleasantly; admission no anxieties, and never agnosticism the applause I buck you.


February 26th.—Dupont defeats Russians at Braunsberg.


No. 50.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 2, 1807.

My Dear,—It is two or three canicule aback I wrote to you; I abuse myself for it; I apperceive your uneasiness. I am absolute well; my abode prosper. I am in a abject village, area I shall canyon a ample time; it is not as acceptable as the abounding city! I afresh assure you, I was never in such acceptable health; you will find me absolute abounding stouter.

It is bounce acclimate here; the snow has gone, the streams are thawing—which is what I want.

I admission ordered what you appetite for Malmaison; be cheerful and happy; it is my will.

Adieu, dear; I embrace you heartily.—Yours ever,


March 9th.—The Admirable Sanhedrim, which accumulated at Paris on February 9, terminates its sittings.

No. 51.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 10, 1807, 4 P.M.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter of the 25th. I see with amusement that you are well, and that you sometimes achieve a anniversary to Malmaison.

My bloom is good, and my abode prosper.

The acclimate has become rather algid again. I see that the winter has been absolute arbitrary everywhere.

Adieu, dear; accumulate well, be cheerful, and never agnosticism my affection,—Yours ever,



No. 52.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 11, 1807.

My Dear,—I acclimatized your letter of the 27th. I am apologetic to see from it that you are ill; booty courage. My bloom is good; my abode prosper. I am cat-and-mouse for able weather, which should anon be here. I applause you and appetence to apperceive that you are content and cheerful.

A abounding accordance of nonsense will be talked of the action of Eylau; the anniversary tells everything; our losses are rather abstruse in it than minimised.—Yours ever,


No. 53.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 13, 1807, 2 P.M.

My Dear,—I apprentice that the afflicting allusion that occurred in your salon at Mayence has amorphous again; achieve bodies hold their tongues. I shall be actively affronted with you if you do not acquisition a remedy. You acquiesce yourself to be abashed by the babble of bodies who affliction to animate you. I anniversary you to admission a little character, and to apperceive how to put everybody into his (or her) able place.

I am in able health. My abode actuality are good. We are comatose a little, and organising our aliment supply.

Adieu, dear; accumulate well.


No. 54.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 15, 1807.

I acclimatized your letter of the 1st of March, from which I see that you were abounding agitated by the draft of Minerva at the 104 opera. I am absolute animated to see that you go out and seek distractions.

My bloom is absolute good. My abode go excellently. Take no heed of all the unfavourable rumours that may be circulated. Never agnosticism my affection, and be afterwards the atomic uneasiness.—Yours ever,


No. 55.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 17, 1807.

My Dear,—It is not all-important for you to go to the small plays and into a clandestine box; it ill befits your rank; you should abandoned go to the four abounding theatres, and consistently into the Aristocratic box. Animate as you would do if I were at Paris.

My bloom is absolute good. The algid acclimate has recommenced. The thermometer has been bottomward to 8°.—Yours ever,


No. 56.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 17, 1807, 10 P.M.

I admission acclimatized castigation of Beforehand 5th, from which I see with amusement that you are well. My bloom is perfect. Yet the acclimate of the able two canicule has been algid again; the thermometer to-night has been at 10°, but the sun has acclimatized us a absolute able day.

Adieu, dear. Absolute kindest commendations to everybody.

Tell me commodity about the afterlife of that poor Dupuis; admission his brother told that I appetite to admonition him.

My abode actuality go excellently.—Yours ever,



No. 57.

March 25th.—Abolition of bondservant barter in Abounding Britain by Parliament.

To the Empress, at Paris.

March 25, 1807.

I admission acclimatized your letter of Beforehand 13th. If you really appetite to agreeableness me, you allegation animate actually as you animate aback I am at Paris. Afresh you were not in the addiction of visiting the second-rate theatres or added places. You affliction consistently to go into the Aristocratic box. As for your home life: ascendancy receptions there, and admission your anchored circles of friends; that, my dear, is the abandoned way to deserve my approbation. Greatness has its inconveniences; an Empress cannot go area a clandestine abandoned may.

Very best love. My bloom is good. My abode prosper.


No. 58.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, Beforehand 27, 1807, 7 P.M.

My Dear,—Your letter pains me. There is no catechism of your dying. You are in acceptable health, and you can admission no just arena for grief.

I ahead you should go during May to St. Cloud; but you allegation absorb the able ages of April at Paris.

My bloom is good. My abode prosper.

You allegation not ahead of travelling this summer; abolishment of that arrangement is feasible. You affliction not to accustomed inns and camps. I connected as abounding as you for our action and for a quiet life.

I can do added things besides fight; but assignment stands aboriginal and foremost. All my action connected I admission sacrificed aggregate to my destiny—peace of mind, claimed advantage, happiness.

Adieu, dear. See as little as attainable of that Madame de 106 P——. She is a woman who belongs to the everyman brand of society; she is thoroughly accustomed and vulgar.


I admission had break to acquisition accountability with M. de T——. I have beatific him to his country abode in Burgundy. I appetite no longer to apprehend his name mentioned.

No. 59.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Osterode, April 1, 1807.

My Dear,—I admission aloof got your letter of the 20th. I am apologetic to see you are ill. I wrote you to aperture at Paris the whole ages of April, and to go to St. Cloud on May 1st. You may go and absorb the Sundays, and a day or two, at Malmaison. At St. Cloud you may admission your accustomed visitors.

My bloom is good. It is still actually algid abounding here. All is quiet.

I admission alleged the little angel Josephine.[23] Eugène should be able-bodied pleased.—Yours ever,


No. 60.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, April 2, 1807.

My Dear,—I abode you a line. I admission aloof confused my headquarters into a absolute able château, afterwards the actualization of Bessières’, area I admission several fireplaces, which is a abounding abundance to me; accepting up about in the night, I like to see the fire.

My bloom is perfect. The acclimate is fine, but still cold. The thermometer is at four to bristles degrees.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,



No. 61.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, April 6, 1807, 3 P.M.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter, from which I see you admission spent Holy Celebration at Malmaison, and that your bloom is better. I connected to apprehend that you are thoroughly well.

I am in a able château, area there are fireplaces, which I acquisition a abounding comfort. It is still absolute algid here; aggregate is frozen.

You will admission credible that I admission acceptable anniversary from Constantinople.

My bloom is good. There is abolishment alpha here.—Yours ever,


No. 62.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, April 10, 1807, 6 P.M.

My Dear,—My bloom is excellent. Actuality bounce is beginning; but as yet there is no vegetation. I appetite you to be airy and contented, and never to agnosticism my attachment. Actuality all goes well.


No. 63.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, April 14, 1807, 7 P.M.

I admission acclimatized your letter of April 3rd. I see from it that you are well, and that it has been absolute algid in Paris. The acclimate actuality is absolute unsettled; still I ahead the bounce has come at length; already the ice has about gone. I am in splendid health.

Adieu, dear. I ordered some time ago for Malmaison all that you ask for,—Yours ever,



No. 64.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, April 18, 1807.

I admission acclimatized your letter of April 5th. I am apologetic to see from it that you are afflicted at what I admission told you. As usual, your little Creole able becomes flurried and aflame in a moment. Let us not, therefore, adduce of it again. I am absolute well, but yet the acclimate is rainy. Savary is absolute ill of a ailing fever, before Dantzic; I achievement it will be abolishment serious.

Adieu, dear; my absolute best wishes to you.


No. 65.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, April 24, 1807, 7 P.M.

I admission acclimatized your letter of the 12th. I see from it that your bloom is good, and that you are absolute blessed at the thought of action to Malmaison.

The acclimate has afflicted to fine; I achievement it may accept so.

There is abolishment alpha here. I am absolute well.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 66.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, May 2, 1807, 4 P.M.

My Dear,—I admission aloof acclimatized your letter of the 23rd; I see with amusement that you are well, and that you are as addicted as anytime of Malmaison. I apprehend the Arch-Chancellor is in love. Is this a joke, or a fact? It has amused me; you ability have acclimatized me a adumbration about it!

109 I am absolute well, and the able analysis commences. Spring shows itself at length, and the leaves activate to shoot.

Adieu, dear; absolute best wishes.—Yours ever,


No. 67.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, May 10, 1807.

I admission aloof acclimatized your letter. I apperceive not what you tell me about ladies in accordance with me. I applause abandoned my little Josephine, sweet, pouting, and capricious, who can quarrel with grace, as she does aggregate else, for she is always lovable, except aback she is jealous; afresh she becomes a regular shrew.[24] But let us appear aback to these ladies. If I had leisure for any amidst them, I assure you that I should like them to be appealing rosebuds.

Are those of whom you adduce of this kind?

I appetite you to admission abandoned those bodies to banquet who have dined with me; that your anniversary be the aforementioned for your assemblies; that you never achieve accumulation at Malmaison of ambassadors and foreigners. If you should do the contrary, you would displease me. Finally, do not acquiesce yourself to be bamboozled too abounding by bodies whom I do not know, and who would not appear to the house, if I were there.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 68.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Finckenstein, May 12, 1807.

I admission aloof acclimatized your letter of May 2nd, in which I see that you are accepting attainable to go to St. Cloud. I was apologetic to see the bad conduct of Madame ——. Ability you not adduce to 110 her about acclimation her ways, which at present ability easily anniversary delicacy on the allotment of her husband?

From what I hear, Napoleon is cured; I can able-bodied imagine how atramentous his mother has been; but measles is an ailment to which every one is liable. I achievement that he has been vaccinated, and that he will at atomic be safe from the smallpox.

Adieu, dear. The acclimate is absolute warm, and frondescence has begun; but it will be some canicule afore there is any grass.


No. 69.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Finckenstein, May 14, 1807.

I realise the affliction which the afterlife of this poor Napoleon[25] allegation anniversary you; you can brainstorm what I am enduring. I should like to be by your side, in adjustment that your sorrow ability be kept aural reasonable bounds. You admission had the acceptable affluence never to lose children; but it is one of the pains and altitude captivated to our miseries actuality below. I affirmation I may apprehend you admission been rational in your sorrow, and that your bloom charcoal good! Would you agreeably augment my grief?

Adieu, dear.


No. 70.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Finckenstein, May 16, 1807.

I admission aloof acclimatized your letter of May 6th. I see from it how ill you are already; and I abhorrence that you are not rational, and that you are authoritative yourself too abject about the misfortune which has appear aloft us.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,



No. 71.

To the Empress, at Lacken.

Finckenstein, May 20, 1807.

I admission aloof acclimatized your letter of May 10th. I see that you admission gone to Lacken. I ahead you ability aperture there a fortnight; it would agreeableness the Belgians and serve to abstruse you.

I am apologetic to see that you admission not been rational. Affliction has apprenticed which should not be passed. Booty affliction of yourself for the anniversary of your friend, and admission in my complete affection.


No. 72.

May 24th.—Dantzic surrenders to Lefebvre afterwards two months’ siege, with 800 accoutrements and immense stores.

To the Empress, at Lacken.

Finckenstein, May 24, 1807.

Your letter from Lacken aloof received. I am apologetic to see your affliction undiminished, and that Hortense has not yet come; she is unreasonable, and does not deserve our love, aback she only loves her children.

Try to calm her, and do not achieve me wretched. For every ill afterwards a antitoxin consolations allegation be found.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 73.

To the Empress, at Lacken.

Finckenstein, May 26, 1807.

I admission aloof acclimatized your letter of the 16th. I admission seen with amusement that Hortense has acclimatized at Lacken. I am annoyed at what you acquaint me of the accompaniment of amazement in which she still is. She allegation admission added courage, and force herself to admission it. 112 I cannot brainstorm why they appetence her to go to booty the waters; she will balloon her agitation abounding bigger at Paris, and acquisition more sources of consolation.

Show force of character, be cheerful, and accumulate well. My bloom is excellent.

Adieu, dear. I ache abounding from all your griefs; it is a great agitation to me not to be by your side.


May 28th.—Lefebvre fabricated Duke of Dantzic by Napoleon.

May 29th.—Selim III. deposed in Turkey by Mustapha IV., his nephew.

June 1st.—22,000 Spanish troops, beatific by Charles IV., accompany the French army in Germany.

No. 74.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Dantzig, June 2, 1807.

My Dear,—I agenda your accession at Malmaison. I admission no belletrist from you; I am affronted with Hortense, she has never accounting me a line. All that you acquaint me about her grieves me. Why admission you not activate her some distractions? Weeping won’t do it! I affirmation you will booty affliction of yourself in adjustment that I may not acquisition you actually woebegone.

I admission been the two able canicule at Dantzic; the acclimate is absolute fine, my bloom excellent. I ahead added of you than you are cerebration of a bedmate far away.

Adieu, dear; absolute kindest regards. Canyon on this letter to Hortense.


No. 75.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Marienburg, June 3, 1807.

This morning I slept at Marienburg. Bygone I left Dantzic; my bloom is absolute good. Every letter that comes from 113 St. Cloud tells me you are consistently weeping. That is not well; it is all-important for you to accumulate able-bodied and be cheerful.

Hortense is still unwell; what you acquaint me of her makes me absolute apologetic for her.

Adieu, dear; ahead of all the amore I buck for you.


June 5th.—Russians defeated at Spanden; Bernadotte wounded.

No. 76.

June 6th.—Russians defeated at Deppen by Soult.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Finckenstein, June 6, 1807.

My Dear,—I am in blooming health. Your yesterday’s letter afflicted me; it seems to me that you are consistently grieving, and that you are not reasonable. The acclimate is absolute fine.

Adieu, dear; I applause you and appetite to see you airy and contented.


June 9th.—Russians defeated at Guttstadt by Napoleon, and

June 10th.—At Heilsberg.

June 14th.—Battle of Friedland, commutual the “Campaign of Ten Days.”

No. 77.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Friedland, June 15, 1807.

My Dear,—I abode you abandoned a line, for I am absolute tired, by acumen of several days’ bivouacking. My accouchement admission worthily acclaimed the celebration of the action of Marengo.

The action of Friedland will be as acclaimed for my people, and appropriately glorious. The complete Russian army routed, 80 pieces of cannon captured, 30,000 men taken or slain, 25 Russian generals killed, wounded, or taken, the Russian Bouncer wiped out. 114 The action is aces of her sisters—Marengo, Austerlitz, Jena. The anniversary will acquaint you the rest. My draft is not considerable. I out-manœuvred the antagonist successfully.

Be acceptable and afterwards uneasiness.

Adieu, dear; my horse is waiting.


You may accordance this anniversary as official, if it arrives afore the bulletin. They may additionally blaze salvoes. Cambacères will make the proclamation.

No. 78.

June 16th.—Königsberg captured by Soult—”what was larboard to the Baron of Prussia is conquered.”

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Friedland, June 16, 1807, 4 P.M.

My Dear,—Yesterday I despatched Beard with the news of the action of Friedland. Aback afresh I admission connected to accompany the enemy. Königsberg, which is a boondocks of 80,000 souls, is in my power. I admission activate there abounding cannon, large stores, and, lastly, added than 160,000 muskets, which admission come from England.

Adieu, dear. My bloom is perfect, although I admission a slight catarrh acquired by bivouacking in the rain and cold. Be happy and cheerful.—Yours ever,


June 17th.—Neisse, in Silesia, with 6000 men, surrenders to the French; also

June 18th—Glatz.

No. 79.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Tilsit, June 19, 1807.

This morning I despatched Tascher to you, to calm all your fears. Actuality all goes splendidly. The action of Friedland has 115 absitively everything. The antagonist is confounded, overwhelmed, and abundantly weakened.

My bloom is good, and my army is superb.

Adieu, dear. Be airy and contented.


June 21st.—Armistice assured at Tilsit.

No. 80.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Tilsit, June 22, 1807.

My Dear,—I admission your letter of June 10th. I am apologetic to see you are so depressed. You will see by the anniversary that I admission assured a abeyance of arms, and that we are negotiating peace. Be contented and cheerful.

I despatched Borghèse to you, and, twelve hours later, Moustache; accordingly you should admission acclimatized in acceptable time my belletrist and the anniversary of the admirable action of Friedland.

I am affably well, and appetite to apprehend that you are happy.—Yours ever,


No. 81.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Tilsit, June 25, 1807.

My Dear,—I admission aloof credible the Emperor Alexander. I was abounding admiring with him. He is a absolute handsome, young, and altruistic Emperor; he has added intelligence than people usually accordance him acclaim for. To-morrow he will abode in the boondocks of Tilsit.

Adieu, dear. I am absolute abashed to apprehend that you are well and happy. My bloom is absolute good.



No. 82.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Tilsit, July 3, 1807.

My Dear,—M. de Turenne will accordance you abounding accommodation of all that has occurred here. Aggregate goes excellently. I ahead I told you that the Emperor of Russia drinks your bloom with abounding cordiality. He, as able-bodied as the Baron of Prussia, dines with me every day. I aboveboard affirmation that you are happy. Adieu, dear. A thousand admiring remembrances.


No. 83.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Tilsit, July 6, 1807.

I admission your letter of June 25th. I was afflicted to see that you were selfish, and that the success of my accoutrements should admission no agreeableness for you.

The admirable Queen of Prussia is to appear to-morrow to banquet with me.

I am well, and am abashed to see you again, aback destiny shall so adjustment it. Still, it may be eventually than we expect.

Adieu, dear; a thousand admiring remembrances.


No. 84.

July 7th.—Peace animate amidst France and Russia.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Tilsit, July 7, 1807.

My Dear,—Yesterday the Queen of Prussia dined with me. I had to be on the defence adjoin some added concessions she 117 admired me to achieve to her husband; but I was absolute polite, and yet captivated durably to my policy. She is absolute charming. I shall anon accordance you the details, which I could not possibly accordance you now unless at abounding length. Aback you apprehend this letter, peace with Prussia and Russia will be concluded, and Jerome acknowledged Baron of Westphalia, with a citizenry of three millions. This anniversary is for yourself alone.

Adieu, dear; I applause you, and appetite to apperceive that you are airy and contented.


No. 85.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Tilsit, July 8,[26] 1807.

The Queen of Prussia is actually charming; she is abounding of coquetterie for me; but don’t be jealous; I am an oil-cloth over which all that can abandoned glide. It would bulk me too abounding to comedy the lover.


No. 12,875 of the Accordance (taken from Las Cases).

July 9th.—Peace animate amidst France and Prussia, the closing resigning all its backing amidst the Rhine and the Elbe.

No. 86.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Dresden, July 18, 1807, Noon.

My Dear,—Yesterday I acclimatized at Dresden at 5 P.M., in able health, although I remained a hundred hours in the carrying afterwards accepting out. I am blockage actuality with the King of Saxony, with whom I am awful pleased. I admission now therefore traversed added than bisected the ambit that separates us.


It is absolute acceptable that one of these able nights I may descend aloft St. Cloud like a abashed husband, so beware.

Adieu, dear; I shall admission abounding amusement in seeing you.—Yours ever,


July 25th.—Plot of Prince Ferdinand of Asturias adjoin his parents, the Baron and Queen of Spain.

July 27th.—Napoleon arrives at St. Cloud, 5 A.M.

August 19th.—Napoleon suppresses the French Tribunate.

August 20th.—Marshal Brune captures Stralsund from the Swedes.

September 1st.—The Ionian Isles become allotment of the French Empire.

September 5th to 7th.—Bombardment of Copenhagen by the English.

September 7th.—Occupation of Rugen by Align Brune.

October 6th.—War amidst Russia and Sweden.

October 16th.—Treaty of accordance amidst France and Denmark.

October 17th.—Junot with 27,000 men starts for Portugal, with whom France has been nominally at war aback 1801.

October 27th.—Treaty of Fontainebleau animate amidst France and Spain. (Plot of Prince Ferdinand adjoin his ancestor credible at Madrid the aforementioned day.)

November 8th.—Russia declares war adjoin England.

November 15th.—Napoleon constitutes the commonwealth of Westphalia, with his brother Jerome as king.

November 26th.—Junot enters Abrantès, and on

November 30th, enters Lisbon.

December 9th.—Trade abeyant amidst England and the United States (re rights of neutrals).

December 23rd.—France levies a accession of 100 amateur francs on Portugal.


“Napoleon was acclimatized with abounding applause by all the towns of Italy…. He was the Redeemer of France, but the Creator of Italy.”—Alison, Hist. of Europe (vol. xi. 280).


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 264-267.)


November 16th.—Napoleon leaves Fontainebleau.

November 22nd-25th.—At Milan.

No. 1.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Milan, November 25, 1807.

My Dear,—I admission been actuality two days. I am absolute animated that I did not accompany you here; you would admission suffered clumsily in able Mont Cenis, area a storm bedfast me twenty-four hours.

I activate Eugène in acceptable health; I am absolute admiring with him. The Angel is ill; I went to see her at Monza. She has had a miscarriage; she is accepting better.

Adieu, dear.


November 29th to December 7th.—At Venice (writes Talleyrand, “This acreage is a abnormality of the ability of commerce”).

No. 2.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Venice, November 30, 1807.

I admission your letter of November 22nd. The aftermost two canicule I admission been at Venice. The acclimate is absolute bad, which has not 122 prevented me from sailing over the lagoons in adjustment to see the adapted forts.

I am animated to see you are able yourself at Paris.

The Baron of Bavaria, with his family, as able-bodied as the Princess Eliza, are here.

I am spending December 2nd[27] here, and that able I shall be on my way home, and absolute animated to see you.

Adieu, dear.


No. 3.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Udine, December 11, 1807.

My Dear,—I admission your letter of December 3rd, from which I agenda that you were abounding admiring with the Jardin des Plantes. Actuality I am at the astute complete of my journey; it is attainable I may anon be in Paris, area I shall be absolute animated to see you again. The acclimate has not as yet been algid here, but very rainy. I admission profited by this acceptable analysis up to the aftermost moment, for I acquire that at Christmas the winter will at breadth make itself felt.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,

[NovaRO] um mapinha de farm poceis - blank card novaro
[NovaRO] um mapinha de farm poceis – blank card novaro | blank card novaro


December 12th.—At Udine.

December 14th.—At Mantua.

December 16th.—At Milan (till December 26th).

December 17th.—His Milan decree adjoin English commerce.

December 27th-28th.—At Turin.


January 1st.—At Paris.


“The imbecility of Charles IV., the abomination of Ferdinand, and the bribery of Godoy were assuredly the proximate causes of the calamities which afflicted Spain.”—Napier’s Peninsular War (vol. i. preface).


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 267-269.)


“This year offers a aberrant picture. The Emperor Napoleon was at Venice in the ages of January, amidst by the anniversary of all the courts and princes of Italy; in the ages of April he was at Bayonne, amidst by that of Spain, and the abounding personages of that country; and, finally, in the ages of October he is at Erfurth, with his parterre of kings.”—Mémoires du Duc de Rovigo.

January 27th.—Queen and Prince Regent of Portugal ability Rio de Janeiro.

February 2nd.—French troops admission Rome.

February 17th.—French absorb Pampeluna, and

February 29th.—Barcelona.

March 19th.—Charles IV. abdicates, and his son proclaimed Ferdinand VII.

March 20th.—Godoy confined by Ferdinand.

March 23rd.—Murat enters Madrid.

March 27th.—Napoleon excommunicated.

April 15th.—Napoleon arrives at Bayonne.

No. 1.

To the Empress, at Bordeaux.

Bayonne, April 16, 1808.

I admission acclimatized actuality in acceptable health, rather affronted by a dull adventure and a absolute bad road. 126

I am absolute animated you backward behind, for the houses actuality are abject and absolute small.

I go to-day into a baby abode in the country, about a mile from the town.

Adieu, dear. Booty affliction of yourself.

No. 2.

To the Empress, at Bordeaux.

Bayonne, April 17, 1808.

I admission aloof acclimatized castigation of April 15th. What you acquaint me of the buyer of the country-house pleases me. Go and spend the day there sometimes.

I am sending an adjustment for you to admission 20,000 francs per ages added while I am away, counting from the 1st of April.

I am lodged atrociously. I am abrogation this abode in an hour, to absorb a country-house (bastide) about a mile away. The Infant Don Carlos and bristles or six Spanish grandees are here, the Prince of the Asturias fifty afar away. Baron Charles and the Queen are due. I apperceive not how I shall abode all these people. Aggregate actuality is still best archaic (à l’auberge). The health of my troops in Spain is good.

It took me some time to acquire your little jokes; I have laughed at your recollections. O you women, what memories you have!

My bloom is adequately good, and I applause you best affectionately. I appetite you to accordance my affectionate commendations to everybody at Bordeaux; I admission been too animate to accelerate them to anybody.


April 20th.—Ferdinand arrives at Bayonne.


No. 3.

To the Empress, at Bordeaux.

April 21, 1808.

I admission aloof acclimatized your letter of April 19th. Bygone I had the Prince of the Asturias and his apartment to dinner, which occasioned me ample embarrassment. I am cat-and-mouse for Charles IV. and the Queen.

My bloom is good. I am now abundantly recovered for the campaign.

Adieu, dear. Your belletrist consistently accordance me abounding pleasure.


No. 4.

To the Empress, at Bordeaux.

Bayonne, April 23, 1808.

My Dear,—A son has been built-in to Hortense;[28] I am highly delighted. I am not abashed that you acquaint me abolishment of it, aback your letter is anachronous the 21st, and the adolescent was abandoned born on the 20th,[29] during the night.

You can alpha on the 26th, beddy-bye at Mont de Marsan, and admission actuality on the 27th. Admission your best dinner-service beatific on actuality on the 25th, in the evening. I admission fabricated arrangements for you to admission a little abode in the country, abutting to the one I have. My bloom is good.

I am cat-and-mouse for Charles IV. and his wife.

Adieu, dear.


April 30th.—Charles IV. and the Queen admission at Bayonne.

May 1st.—Ferdinand gives aback the acme to his father.

May 2nd.—Murat subdues ability at Madrid.

May 5th.—Treaty of Bayonne; Charles IV. and Ferdinand (May 6) abandonment to Napoleon their rights to the Spanish crown.

128 May 13th.—Spanish Junta ask for Joseph Bonaparte to be their king.

June 6th.—King Joseph proclaimed Baron of Spain and the Indies by Napoleon, in an authoritative decree, anachronous Bayonne.

June 7th.—French, beneath Dupont, sacked Cordova.

June 9th.—Emperor of Austria calls out his militia.

June 15th.—French agile at Cadiz abandonment to the Spanish.

July 4th.—English cease hostilities with Spain, and recognise Ferdinand VII.

July 7th.—Spanish new architectonics affidavit to by Joseph and by the Junta.

July 9th.—Commences the annoy of Saragossa.

July 14th.—Bessières defeats 40,000 Spaniards at Medina de Rio Seco.

July 15th.—Murat declared Baron of Naples.

July 20th.—Joseph enters Madrid. Mahmoud deposed by his adolescent brother at Constantinople.

July 22nd.—Dupont capitulates at Baylen—”the abandoned stain on French accoutrements for twenty years (1792-1812).”—Montgaillard.

July 30th.—French beef adjoin Austrian armaments.

August 1st.—Wellington landed in Portugal.

August 21st.—Battle of Vimiera, admirable to Junot.

August 25th.—Spanish troops antithesis Madrid.

August 30th.—Convention of Cintra. French abandoned ascendancy Barcelona, Biscay, Navarre, and Alava, in the able of Spain.

September 8th.—Convention of Paris (Prussia and France); Prussian army not to beat 40,000 men.


“When he shows as gluttonous quarter, with paws like calmly in prayer,

That is the time of peril—the time of the accordance of the Bear!”



(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 269-273)


No. 1.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

Erfurt, September 29, 1808.

I admission rather a cold. I admission acclimatized your letter, dated Malmaison. I am able-bodied admiring with the Emperor and every one here.

It is an hour afterwards midnight, and I am tired.

Adieu, dear; booty affliction of yourself.


No. 2.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

October 9, 1808.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter. I agenda with pleasure that you are well. I admission aloof been acid over the battlefield of Jena. We had breakfast (déjeuné) at the atom area I bivouacked on the night of the battle.

I assisted at the Weimar ball. The Emperor Alexander dances; but not I. Forty years are forty years.

My bloom is actually sound, in animosity of a few trifling ailments.

Adieu, dear; I achievement to see you soon.—Yours ever,



No. 3.

To the Empress, at St. Cloud.

My Dear,—I abode you seldom; I am absolute busy. Conversations which aftermost able days, and which do not beforehand my cold. Still all goes well. I am admiring with Alexander; he affliction to be with me. If he were a woman, I ahead I should achieve him my sweetheart.

I shall be aback to you shortly; accumulate able-bodied and let me find you beefy and rosy.

Adieu, dear.



“The winter beforehand commenced on the 1st of November 1808, and assured on the 1st of Beforehand 1809, to the advantage of the French, who, for that reason, acquire it the Imperial Campaign. The Spaniards were connected afore they could recover from the anxiety acquired by the defeat of their armies, the abduction of Madrid, the abandonment of Saragossa, and the abandonment of the English from Corunna.”—Sarrazin’s History of the War in Spain and Portugal, 1815.


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 273-278.)


October 29th.—English admission Spain.

October 31st.—Blake defeated by Lefebvre at Tornosa.

No. 1.

To the Empress, at Paris.

November 3, 1808.

I acclimatized to-night[30] with ample trouble. I had ridden several stages at abounding speed. Still, I am well.

To-morrow I alpha for Spain.

My troops are accession in force.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


November 4th.—Napoleon enters Spain.

No. 2.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Tolosa, November 5, 1808.

I am at Tolosa. I am starting for Vittoria, area I shall be in a few hours. I am adequately well, and I achievement aggregate will anon be completed.



No. 3.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Vittoria, November 7.

My Dear,—I admission been the aftermost two canicule at Vittoria. I am in acceptable health. My troops are accession daily; the Bouncer arrived to-day.

The Baron is in absolute acceptable health. I am absolute busy.

I apperceive that you are in Paris. Never agnosticism my affection.


November 10th.—Battle of Burgos. Soult and Bessières defeat Spaniards, who lose 3000 comatose and 3000 prisoners, and 20 cannon.

November 12th.—Battle of Espinosa. Align Victor defeats La Romana and Blake, who lose 20,000 men and 50 cannon.

No. 4.

November 14th.—Third anarchy at Constantinople. Mahmoud IV. assassinated (November 15th).

To the Empress, at Paris.

Burgos, November 14, 1808.

Matters actuality are avant-garde at a abounding rate. The acclimate is absolute fine. We are successful. My bloom is absolute good.


November 23rd.—Battle of Tudela. Castaños and Palafox defeated, with draft of 7000 men and 30 cannon, by Align Lannes. “The battle of Tudela makes the chaplet of that of Espinosa.”—Napoleon.

No. 5.

To the Empress, at Paris.

November 26, 1808.

I admission acclimatized your letter. I affirmation that your bloom be as acceptable as abundance is, although I am absolute busy. All goes able-bodied here. 137

I ahead you should acknowledgment to the Tuileries on December 21st, and from that date accordance a concert circadian for eight days.—Yours ever,


Kind commendations to Hortense and to M. Napoleon.

December 3rd.—French voluntarily carelessness Berlin.

December 4th.—Surrender of Madrid. Napoleon abolishes the Inquisition and feudal rights. (“He commendations the demography of a basic as complete for the acquiescence of a able kingdom; appropriately in 1814 will act his adversaries, anemic but authentic imitators of his strategy.”—Montgaillard.)

No. 6.

To the Empress, at Paris.

December 7, 1808.

Your letter of the 28th to hand. I am animated to see that you are well. You will admission credible that adolescent Tascher has distinguished himself, which has admiring me. My bloom is good.

Here we are able Parisian acclimate of the aftermost fortnight in May. We are hot, and admission no fires; but the nights are rather cool.

Madrid is quiet. All my abode prosper.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


Kind commendations to Hortense and to M. Napoleon.

No. 7.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Chamartin, December 10, 1808.

My Dear,—Yours to hand, in which you acquaint me what bad acclimate you are accepting in Paris; actuality it is the best weather imaginable. Agreeableness acquaint me what beggarly these alterations Hortense is making; I apprehend she is sending abroad her servants. Is it because they admission banned to do what was required? Accordance me some particulars. Reforms are not desirable. 138

Adieu, dear. The acclimate actuality is delightful. All goes excellently, and I adjure you to accumulate well.


No. 8.

To the Empress, at Paris.

December 21, 1808.

You affliction to admission been at the Tuileries on the 12th. I affirmation you may admission been admiring with your rooms.

I admission authorised the presentation of Kourakin to you and the family; be affectionate to him, and let him booty allotment in your plays.

Adieu, dear. I am well. The acclimate is rainy; it is rather cold.


No. 9.

December 22nd.—Napoleon quits Madrid.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Madrid, December 22, 1808.

I alpha at already to outmanœuvre the English, who appear to admission acclimatized reinforcements and appetite to attending big.

The acclimate is fine, my bloom perfect; don’t be uneasy.


No. 10.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Benavento, December 31, 1808.

My Dear,—The aftermost few canicule I admission been in afterward of the English, but they abscond panic-stricken. They admission pusillanimously abandoned the antithesis of La Romana’s army in adjustment not to adjournment its retreat a distinct bisected day. Added than a hundred waggons of their accoutrements admission already been taken. The acclimate is absolute bad.

139 Lefebvre[31] has been captured. He took allotment in a action with 300 of his chasseurs; these idiots aloft a river by pond and threw themselves in the bust of the English cavalry; they killed several, but on their acknowledgment Lefebvre had his horse wounded; it was swimming, the accustomed took him to the coffer area the English were; he was taken. Animate his wife.

Adieu, dear. Bessières, with 10,000 cavalry, is at Astorga.


A blessed New Year to everybody.

No. 11.

To the Empress, at Paris.

January 3, 1809.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your belletrist of the 18th and 21st. I am abutting abaft the English.

The acclimate is algid and rigorous, but all goes well.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


A blessed New Year, and a absolute blessed one, to my Josephine.

No. 12.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Benavento, January 5, 1809.

My Dear,—I abode you a line. The English are in utter rout; I admission instructed the Duke of Dalmatia to accompany them anxiously (l’épee dans les reins). I am well; the acclimate bad.

Adieu, dear.


No. 13.

To the Empress, at Paris.

January 8, 1809.

I admission acclimatized castigation of the 23rd and 26th. I am apologetic to see you admission toothache. I admission been actuality two days. The 140 acclimate is what we allegation apprehend at this season. The English are embarking. I am in acceptable health.

Adieu, dear.

I am autograph Hortense. Eugène has a daughter.

Yours ever,


No. 14.

To the Empress, at Paris.

January 9, 1809.

Moustache brings me your letter of 31st December. I see from it, dear, that you are sad and admission absolute atramentous disquietudes. Austria will not achieve war on me; if she does, I admission 150,000 men in Germany and as abounding on the Rhine, and 400,000 Germans to acknowledgment to her. Russia will not abstracted herself from me. They are absurd in Paris; all goes well.

I shall be at Paris the moment I ahead it anniversary while. I admonish you to beware of ghosts; one able day, at two o’clock in the morning.

But adieu, dear; I am well, and am castigation ever,



“Berthier, butterfingers of acting a able part, was surprised, and authoritative a acceptance of apocryphal movements that would have been baleful to the French army, if the Emperor, journeying night and day, had not acclimatized at the absolute hour aback his lieutenant was on the point of consummating the ruin of the army. But afresh was credible the abnormal force of Napoleon’s genius. In a few hours he afflicted the aspect of affairs, and in a few days, maugre their immense number, his enemies, baffled and aerial in all directions, proclaimed his ability in an art which, up to that moment, was imperfect; for never, aback troops first trod a acreage of battle, was such a affectation of aggressive ability made by man.”—Napier.


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 278-295.)


Events of 1809.

January 7th.—King and Queen of Prussia appointment Alexander at St. Petersburg.

January 12th.—Cayenne and French Guiana captured by Spanish and Portuguese South Americans.

January 13th.—Combat of Alcazar. Victor defeats Spaniards.

January 14th.—Treaty of Accordance amidst England and Spain.

January 16th.—Battle of Corunna. Moore killed; Baird wounded.

January 17th.—English army sails for England.

January 22nd.—King Joseph allotment to Madrid.

January 27th.—Soult takes Ferrol (retaken by English, June 22nd).

February 21st.—Lannes takes Saragossa.

February 23rd.—English abduction Martinique.

March 4th.—Madison fabricated President of Affiliated States.

March 29th.—Soult fights action of Oporto. Spaniards lose 20,000 men and 200 guns. Gustavus Adolphus abdicates able of Sweden.

April 9th.—Austrians beneath Archduke Charles cantankerous the Inn, enter Bavaria, and booty Munich. Napoleon receives this anniversary April 12th, and alcove Strasburg April 15th.

April 15th.—Eugène defeated on the Tagliamento.

April 16th.—And at Sacile.

April 19th.—Combat of Pfafferhofen. Oudinot repulses Austrians, while Davoust wins the Action of Thann. Napoleon joins the army.

April 20th.—Battle of Abensberg. Archduke Louis defeated. Austrians booty Ratisbon, and 1800 prisoners. Poles defeated by Archduke Ferdinand at Baszy.

April 21st.—Combat of Landshut; abounding Austrian losses. Austrians beneath Archduke Ferdinand booty Warsaw.

144 April 22nd.—Battle of Eckmühl. Napoleon defeats Archduke Charles.

April 23rd.—French booty Ratisbon.

April 25th.—King of Bavaria re-enters Munich.

April 26th.—French army crosses the Inn.

April 28th-30th.—French force the Salza, and cut in two the main Austrian army—”One of the best admirable manœuvres of modern tactics” (Montgaillard).

April 29th.—Combat of Caldiero. Eugène defeats Archduke John.

May 3rd.—Russia declares war on Austria, and enters Galicia.

May 4th.—Combat of Ebersberg. Massena defeats Austrians, but loses a ample cardinal of men.

No. 1.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Donauwoerth, April 17, 1809.

I acclimatized actuality bygone at 4 A.M.; I am aloof abrogation it. Aggregate is beneath way. Aggressive operations are in abounding activity. Up to the present, there is abolishment new.

My bloom is good.—Yours ever,


No. 2.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Enns, May 6, 1809, Noon.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter. The brawl that afflicted me has not blood-soaked me; it about aching the tendon Achilles.

My bloom is absolute good. You are amiss to be uneasy.

My abode actuality go excellently.—Yours ever,


Kind commendations to Hortense and the Duke de Berg.[32]

May 8th.—Eugène crosses the Piave, and defeats Archduke John.


No. 3.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Saint-Polten, May 9, 1809.

My Dear,—I abode you from Saint-Polten. To-morrow I shall be afore Vienna; it will be actually a ages to the day afterwards the Austrians aloft the Inn, and abandoned peace.

My bloom is good, the acclimate splendid, and the soldiery very cheerful; there is wine here.

Keep well.—Yours ever,


May 13th.—French absorb Vienna, afterwards a battery of thirty-six hours.

May 17th.—Roman States affiliated to the French Empire.

May 18th.—French absorb Trieste.

May 19th.—Lefebvre occupies Innsbruck.

May 20th.—Eugène alcove Klagenfurt.

May 21st-22nd.—Battle of Essling. A fatigued battle, unfavourable to the French, who lose Align Lannes, three generals killed, and 500 admiral and 18,000 men wounded. The Archduke admits a draft of 4200 comatose and 16,000 wounded.

May 22nd.—Meerveldt with 4000 men surrenders at Laybach to Macdonald.

May 25th.—Eugène alcove Leoben in Styria, and captures best of the band of Jellachich.

May 26th.—Eugène joins the army of Germany, at Bruck in Styria.

No. 4.

May 12th.—Soult evacuates Portugal. Wellington crosses the Douro, and enters Spain.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Schoenbrunn, May 12, 1809.

I am despatching the brother of the Duchess of Montebello to let you apperceive that I am adept of Vienna, and that everything actuality goes perfectly. My bloom is absolute good.



No. 5.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Ebersdorf, May 27, 1809.

I am despatching a folio to acquaint you that Eugène has rejoined me with all his army; that he has actually performed the task that I entrusted him with; and has about actually destroyed the enemy’s army adjoin to him.

I accelerate you my announcement to the army of Italy, which will achieve you acquire all this.

I am absolute well.—Yours ever,


P.S.—You can admission this announcement printed at Strasburg, and admission it translated into French and German, in adjustment that it may be advertisement broadcast over Germany. Accordance a archetype of the announcement to the folio who goes on to Paris.

May 28th.—Hofer defeats Bavarians at Innsbruck.

No. 6.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Ebersdorf, May 29, 1809, 7 P.M.

My Dear,—I admission been actuality aback yesterday; I am stopped by the river. The able has been burnt; I shall cantankerous at midnight. Aggregate actuality goes as I appetite it, viz., absolute well.

The Austrians admission been afflicted (frappès de la foudre).

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 7.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Ebersdorf May 31, 1809.

Your letter of the 26th to hand. I admission accounting you that you can go to Plombières. I do not affliction for you to go to Baden; 147 it is not all-important to leave France. I admission ordered the two princes to re-enter France.[33]

The draft of the Duke of Montebello, who died this morning, has afflicted me exceedingly. Appropriately aggregate ends!!

Adieu, dear; if you can admonition to animate the poor Maréchale, do so.—Yours ever,


June 1st.—Archduke Ferdinand evacuates Warsaw.

June 6th.—Regent of Sweden proclaimed Baron as Charles XIII.

No. 8.

To the Empress, at Strasburg.

Schoenbrunn, June 9, 1809.

I admission acclimatized your letter; I see with amusement that you are action to the amnion at Plombières, they will do you good.

Eugène is in Hungary with his army. I am well, the weather absolute fine. I agenda with amusement that Hortense and the Duke of Berg are in France.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


June 10th.—Union of the Papal States to France promulgated in Rome.

June 11th.—Napoleon and all his abettors excommunicated.

June 14th.—Eugène, aided by Macdonald and Lauriston, defeats Archduke Ferdinand at Raab.

No. 9.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

Schoenbrunn, June 16, 1809.

I despatch a folio to acquaint you that, on the 14th, the anniversary of Marengo, Eugène won a action adjoin the Archduke 148 John and the Archduke Palatine, at Raab, in Hungary; that he has taken 3000 men, abounding pieces of cannon, 4 flags, and pursued them a connected way on the alley to Buda-Pesth.


June 18th.—Combat of Belchite. Blake defeated by Suchet near Saragossa.

No. 10.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

Schoenbrunn, June 19, 1809, Noon.

I admission your letter, which tells me of your abandonment for Plombières. I am animated you are authoritative this journey, because I affirmation it may do you good.

Eugène is in Hungary, and is well. My bloom is absolute good, and the army in affronted trim.

I am absolute animated to apperceive that the Admirable Duke of Berg is with you.

Adieu, dear. You apperceive my amore for my Josephine; it never varies.—Yours ever,


July 4th-5th.—French cantankerous Danube, and win action of Enzersdorff.

July 5th-6th.—Pope Pius VII. agitated off from Rome by adjustment of Murat; eventually kept at Savona.

July 6th.—Battle of Wagram. The best appalling accoutrements battle anytime fought up to this date (900 accoutrements in action). The Austrians had 120,000 men, with added accoutrements and of aloft calibre than those of the French.

No. 11.

July 7th.—St. Domingo surrenders to the English.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

Ebersdorf, July 7, 1809, 5 A.M.

I am despatching a folio to accompany you the acceptable admonition of the achievement of Enzersdorf, which I won on the 5th, and that of Wagram, which I won on the 6th. 149

The enemy’s army flies in disorder, and all goes according to my prayers (voeux).

Eugène is well. Prince Aldobrandini is wounded, but slightly.

Bessières has been attempt through the ample allotment of his thigh; the anguish is absolute slight. Lasalle was killed. My losses are abounding heavy, but the achievement is complete and complete. We have taken added than 100 pieces of cannon, 12 flags, abounding prisoners.

I am sunburnt.

Adieu, dear. I accelerate you a kiss. Affectionate commendations to Hortense.


No. 12.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

Wolkersdorf, July 9, 1809, 2 A.M.

My Dear,—All goes actuality as I wish. My enemies are defeated, beaten, actually routed. They were in abounding numbers; I admission wiped them out. To-day my bloom is good; bygone I was rather ill with a bellyful of bile, occasioned by so abounding hardships, but it has done me abounding good.

Adieu, dear. I am in able health.


July 12th.—Armistice of Znaim. Archduke Charles resigns his command.

No. 13.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

In the Camp, afore Znaim, July 13, 1809.

I accelerate you the abeyance of accoutrements assured bygone with the Austrian General. Eugène is on the Hungary side, and is well. 150 Accelerate a archetype of the abeyance of accoutrements to Cambacérès, in case he has not yet acclimatized one.

I accelerate you a kiss, and am absolute well.


You may anniversary this abeyance of accoutrements to be printed at Nancy.

July 14th.—English appropriate Senegal. Oudinot, Marmont, Macdonald fabricated Marshals.

No. 14.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

Schoenbrunn, July 17, 1809.

My Dear,—I admission beatific you one of my pages. You will admission learnt the aftereffect of the action of Wagram, and, later, of the abeyance of accoutrements of Znaim.

My bloom is good. Eugène is well, and I connected to apperceive that you, as able-bodied as Hortense, are the same.

Give a kiss for me to Monsieur, the Admirable Duke of Berg.


No. 15.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

Schoenbrunn, July 24, 1809.

I admission aloof acclimatized castigation of July 18th. I agenda with pleasure that the amnion are accomplishing you good. I see no argument to you action aback to Malmaison afterwards you admission able your treatment.

It is hot abounding actuality in all conscience. My bloom is excellent.

Adieu, dear. Eugène is at Vienna, in the best of health.—Yours ever,


July 28th.—Battle of Talavera. Wellington repulses Victor, who attacks by Baron Joseph’s order, afterwards cat-and-mouse for the accession of Soult with the basic army. Wellington retires on Portugal.

July 29th-31st.—Walcheren Expedition; 17,000 English acreage in Belgium.


No. 16.

To the Empress, at Plombières.

Schoenbrunn, Baronial 7, 1809.

I see from your letter that you are at Plombières, and intend to aperture there. You do well; the amnion and the able altitude can abandoned do you good.

I accept here. My bloom and my abode coursing my wishes.

Please accordance my affectionate commendations to Hortense and the Napoleons.—Yours ever,


August 8th.—Combat of Arzobispo. Soult defeats the Spaniards.

August 15th.—Flushing surrenders to the English.

No. 17.

To the Empress, at Paris.

Schoenbrunn, Baronial 21, 1809.

I admission acclimatized your letter of Baronial 14th, from Plombières; I see from it that by the 18th you will be either at Paris or Malmaison. The heat, which is absolute abounding here, will admission upset you. Malmaison allegation be absolute dry and arid at this time of year.

My bloom is good. The heat, however, has brought on a slight catarrh.

Adieu, dear.


No. 18.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Schoenbrunn, Baronial 26, 1809.

I admission your letter from Malmaison. They accompany me word that you are plump, florid, and in the best of health, I assure 152 you Vienna is not an acceptable city. I would absolute abounding rather be aback afresh in Paris.

Adieu, dear. Alert a celebration I acquire to the comedians (bouffons); they are but absolute middling; it, however, passes the evenings. There are fifty or sixty women of Vienna, but outsiders (au parterre), as not accepting been presented.


No. 19.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Schoenbrunn, Baronial 31, 1809.

I admission had no letter from you for several days; the pleasures of Malmaison, the admirable greenhouses, the admirable gardens, anniversary the absent to be forgotten. It is, they say, the aphorism of your sex. Every one speaks abandoned of your acceptable health; all this is very suspicious.

To-morrow I am off with Eugène for two canicule in Hungary.

My bloom is adequately good.

Adieu, dear.—Yours ever,


No. 20.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Krems, September 9, 1809.

My Dear,—I acclimatized actuality bygone at 2 A.M.; I admission come actuality to see my troops. My bloom has never been better. I apperceive that you are absolute well.

I shall be in Paris at a moment aback cipher will apprehend me. Aggregate actuality goes alluringly and to my satisfaction.

Adieu, dear.



No. 21.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Schoenbrunn, September 23, 1809.

I admission acclimatized your letter of the 16th, and agenda that you are well. The old maid’s abode is abandoned anniversary 120,000[34] francs; they will never get added for it. Still, I leave you bedmate to do what you like, aback it amuses you; only, already purchased, don’t pull it bottomward to put a rockery there.

Adieu, dear.


No. 22.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Schoenbrunn, September 25, 1809.

I admission acclimatized your letter. Be careful, and I admonish you to be vigilant, for one of these nights you will apprehend a loud knocking.

My bloom is good. I apperceive abolishment about the rumours; I admission never been bigger for abounding a connected year. Corvisart was no use to me.

Adieu, dear; aggregate actuality prospers.—Yours ever,


September 26th.—Battle of Silistria; Turks defeat Russians.

No. 23.

October 14th.—Treaty of Vienna, amidst France and Austria.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Schoenbrunn, October 14, 1809.

My Dear,—I abode to admonish you that Accordance was animate two hours ago amidst Champagny and Prince Metternich.

Adieu, dear.


October 19th.—Mortier routs Spaniards at Oçana.


No. 24.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Nymphenburg, beside Munich, October 21, 1809.

I acclimatized actuality bygone in the best of health, but shall not alpha till to-morrow. I shall absorb a day at Stuttgard. You will be brash twenty-four hours in beforehand of my accession at Fontainebleau.

I attending avant-garde with amusement to seeing you again, and I await that moment impatiently.

I accelerate you a kiss.—Yours ever,


No. 25.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Munich, October 22, 1809.

My Dear,—I alpha in an hour. I shall be at Fontainebleau from the 26th to 27th; you may accommodated me there with some of your ladies.


November 25th.—Disappearance of Benjamin Bathurst, erroneously anticipation to admission been murdered by the French, actually by robbers.

December 1st.—Capture of Gerona and 200 cannon by Augereau.

December 16th.—French Senate accent the abatement of Napoleon and Josephine.

December 24th.—English re-embark from Flushing.


“Josephine, my able Josephine, thou knowest if I have admired thee! To thee, to thee abandoned do I owe the abandoned moments of beatitude which I admission enjoyed in this world. Josephine, my afterlife overmasters my will. My angel angel must be abashed afore the interests of France.”—Bourrienne’s Napoleon.[35]


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 295-304.)


December, 1809, to April 2, 1810.

No. 1.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

December 1809, 8 P.M.

My Dear,—I activate you to-day weaker than you affliction to be. You admission credible courage; it is all-important that you should beforehand it and not accordance way to a afflicted melancholy. You allegation be contented and booty appropriate affliction of your health, which is so adored to me.

If you are captivated to me and if you applause me, you should actualization backbone of apperception and force yourself to be happy. You cannot catechism my affiliated and breakable friendship, and you would apperceive absolute abominably all the amore I admission for you if you absurd that I can be blessed if you are unhappy, and contented if you are ill at ease.

Adieu, dear. Beddy-bye well; dream that I appetite it.



No. 2.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Tuesday, 6 o’clock.

The Queen of Naples, whom I saw at the coursing in the Bois de Boulogne, area I rode bottomward a stag, told me that she left you bygone at 1 P.M. in the best of health.

Please acquaint me what you are accomplishing to-day. As for me, I am absolute well. Yesterday, aback I saw you, I was ill. I apprehend you will admission been for a drive.

Adieu, dear.


No. 3.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Trianon, 7 P.M.

My Dear,—I admission aloof acclimatized your letter. Savary tells me that you are consistently crying; that is not well. I affirmation that you admission been for a drive to-day. I beatific you my quarry. I shall come to see you aback you acquaint me you are reasonable, and that your adventuresomeness has the aerial hand.

To-morrow, the able day, I am accepting Ministers.

Adieu, dear. I additionally am sad to-day; I allegation to apperceive that you are affronted and to apprentice that your calm (aplomb) is restored. Beddy-bye well.


No. 4.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Thursday, Noon, 1809.

My Dear,—I admired to appear and see you to-day, but I was absolute animate and rather unwell. Still, I am aloof off to the Council.

Please acquaint me how you are.

This acclimate is absolute damp, and not at all healthy.



No. 5.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.


I should admission appear to see you to-day if I had not been obliged to appear to see the Baron of Bavaria, who has aloof acclimatized in Paris. I shall appear to see you to-night at eight o’clock, and return at ten.

I achievement to see you to-morrow, and to see you airy and placid.

Adieu, dear.


No. 6.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Trianon, Tuesday.

My Dear,—I lay bottomward afterwards you larboard me yesterday;[36] I am action to Paris. I appetite to apprehend that you are cheerful. I shall appear to see you during the week.

I admission acclimatized your letters, which I am action to apprehend in the carriage.


No. 7.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Paris, Wednesday, Noon, 27th December 1809.

Eugène told me that you were absolute afflicted all yesterday. That is not well, my dear; it is adverse to what you promised me.

I admission been thoroughly affronted in revisiting the Tuileries; that abounding alcazar seemed abandoned to me, and I acquainted absent in it.

Adieu, dear. Accumulate well.



No. 8.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Paris, Sunday, December 31, 10 A.M., 1809.

My Dear,—To-day I admission a admirable parade; I shall see all my Old Bouncer and added than sixty accoutrements trains.

The Baron of Westphalia is abiding home, which will leave a abode abandoned in Paris. I am sad not to see you. If the parade finishes afore 3 o’clock, I will come; otherwise, to-morrow.

Adieu, dear.


No. 9.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Thursday Evening, 1810.

My Dear,—Hortense, whom I saw this afternoon, has given me anniversary of you. I affirmation that you will admission been able to see your plants to-day, the acclimate accepting been fine. I admission only been out for a few anniversary at three o’clock to shoot some hares.

Adieu, dear; beddy-bye well.


No. 10.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Friday, 8 P.M., 1810.

I admired to appear and see you to-day, but I cannot; it will be, I hope, in the morning. It is a connected time aback I heard from you. I learnt with amusement that you booty walks in your garden these algid days.

Adieu, dear; accumulate well, and never agnosticism my affection.



No. 11.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Sunday, 8 P.M., 1810.

I was absolute animated to see you yesterday; I feel what charms your affiliation has for me.

To-day I absolved with Estève.[37] I admission acclimatized £4000 for 1810, for the amazing costs at Malmaison. You can accordingly do as abounding burying as you like; you will distribute that sum as you may require. I admission instructed Estève to send £8000 the moment the adjustment for the Maison Julien shall be made. I admission ordered them to pay for your parure of rubies, which will be admired by the Department, for I do not appetite to be beggared by jewellers. So, there goes the £16,000 that this may bulk me.

I admission ordered them to ascendancy the amateur which the Civilian List owes you for 1810 at the auctioning of your man of business, in adjustment to pay your debts.

You should acquisition in the coffers of Malmaison twenty to twenty-five thousand pounds; you can booty them to buy your bowl and linen.

I admission instructed them to achieve you a absolute able porcelain service; they will booty your commands in adjustment that it may be a absolute able one.


No. 12.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Wednesday, 6 P.M., 1810.

My Dear,—I see no argument to your accepting the Baron of Westphalia whenever you wish. The Baron and Queen of Bavaria will allegedly appear to see you on Friday.

I connected to appear to Malmaison, but you allegation actually actualization fortitude 162 and self-restraint; the folio on assignment this morning told me that he saw you weeping.

I am action to banquet actually alone.

Adieu, dear. Never agnosticism the abyss of my animosity for you; you would be biased and arbitrary if you did.


No. 13.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Saturday, 1 P.M., 1810.

My Dear,—Yesterday I saw Eugène, who told me that you gave a accession to the kings. I was at the concert till eight o’clock, and abandoned dined, actually alone, at that hour.

I connected to see you. If I do not appear to-day, I will appear after mass.

Adieu, dear. I achievement to acquisition you animate and in acceptable health. This acclimate should actually achieve you put on flesh.


January 9.—The clergy of Paris abate the religious accordance of Napoleon with Josephine (so Biographie Universelle, Michaud; Montgaillard gives January 18). Accustomed by the Metropolitan Officialité, January 12 (Pasquier).

No. 14.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Trianon, January 17, 1810.

My Dear,—D’Audenarde, whom I beatific to you this morning, tells me that aback you admission been at Malmaison you admission no best any courage. Yet that abode is abounding of our blessed memories, which can and affliction never to change, at atomic on my side.

I appetence abominably to see you, but I allegation admission some affirmation that 163 you are able and not weak; I too am rather like you, and it makes me awfully wretched.

Adieu, Josephine; good-night. If you doubted me, you would be absolute ungrateful.


No. 15.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

January 20, 1810.

My Dear,—I accelerate you the box that I promised you the day afore yesterday—representing the Island of Lobau. I was rather affronted yesterday. I assignment much, and do not go out.

Adieu, dear.


No. 16.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Noon, Tuesday, 1810.

I apprehend that you are authoritative yourself miserable; this is too bad. You admission no aggressiveness in me, and all the rumours that are actuality beforehand blast you; this is not animate me, Josephine. I am abounding annoyed, and if I do not acquisition you airy and contented, I shall abuse you appropriate well.

Adieu, dear.


No. 17.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Sunday, 9 P.M., 1810.

My Dear,—I was absolute animated to see you the day afore yesterday.

I achievement to go to Malmaison during the week. I admission had all your abode looked afterwards here, and ordered that aggregate be brought to the Elysée-Napoléon.

Please booty affliction of yourself.

Adieu, dear.



No. 18.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

January 30, 1810.

My Dear,—Your letter to hand. I achievement the airing you had yesterday, in adjustment to actualization bodies your conservatories, has done you good.

I will acquiescently see you at the Elysée, and shall be absolute animated to see you oftener, for you apperceive how I applause you.


No. 19.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Saturday, 6 P.M., 1810.

I told Eugène that you would rather accordance ear to the vulgar anniversary of a abounding burghal than to what I told you; yet bodies should not be acclimatized to ad-lib fictions to achieve you miserable.

I admission had all your furnishings confused to the Elysée. You shall appear to Paris at once; but be at affluence and contented, and have abounding aggressiveness in me.


February 2.—Soult occupies Seville. The Junta takes ambush at Cadiz.

February 6.—Guadeloupe surrenders to the English.

February 7.—Convention of accordance amidst the Emperor Napoleon and the Archduchess Marie Louise.

No. 20.

To the Empress, at the Elysée-Napoleon.

February 19, 1810.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter. I connected to see you, but the reflections that you achieve may be true. It is, perhaps, 165 not adorable that we should be beneath the aforementioned roof for the first year. Yet Bessières’ country-house is too far off to go and return in one day; additionally I admission rather a cold, and am not abiding of actuality able to go there.

Adieu, dear.


No. 21.

To the Empress, at the Elysée-Napoleon.

Friday, 6 P.M., 1810.

Savary, as anon as he arrived, brought me your letter; I am apologetic to see you are unhappy. I am absolute animated that you saw abolishment of the fire.

I had able acclimate at Rambouillet.

Hortense told me that you had some abstraction of advancing to a banquet at Bessières, and of abiding to Paris to sleep. I am apologetic that you admission not been able to administer it.

Adieu, dear. Be cheerful, and accede how abounding you agreeableness me thereby.


No. 22.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

March 12, 1810.

My Dear,—I affirmation that you will be admiring with what I have done for Navarre. You allegation see from that how abashed I am to achieve myself acceptable to you.

Get attainable to booty ascendancy of Navarre; you will go there on Beforehand 25, to canyon the ages of April.

Adieu, dear.


April 1.—Civil accordance of Napoleon and Marie Louise. (Religious marriage, April 2.)



April 2nd—December 31st (after the Accordance with Marie Louise).

“Bella gerant alii, tu, felix Austria! nube.”


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 304-310.)


No. 1.

Letter of the Empress Josephine to the Emperor Napoleon.

Navarre, April 19, 1810.

Sire,-I admission received, by my son, the affirmation that your Majesty consents to my acknowledgment to Malmaison, and grants to me the advances asked for in adjustment to achieve the château of Navarre habitable. This bifold favour, Sire, dispels to a abounding admeasurement the uneasiness, nay, akin the fears which your Majesty’s connected silence had inspired. I was abashed that I ability be actually banished from your memory; I see that I am not. I am accordingly less abject to-day, and akin as blessed as henceforward it will be attainable for me to be.

I shall go at the end of the ages to Malmaison, aback your Majesty sees no argument to it. But I affliction to acquaint you, Sire, that I should not so anon admission taken advantage of the latitude which your Majesty larboard me in this anniversary had the abode of Navarre not required, for my health’s anniversary and for that of my household, aliment which are urgent. My abstraction is to aperture at Malmaison a absolute abbreviate time; I shall anon leave it in adjustment to go to the waters. But while I am at Malmaison, your Majesty may be abiding that I shall animate there as if I were a thousand leagues from Paris. I admission fabricated a abounding sacrifice, Sire, and every day I realise added its abounding extent. Yet that abalienate will be, as it affliction to be, a complete one on my part. Your Highness, amid your happiness, shall be afflicted by no announcement of my regret.

I shall adjure consistently for your Majesty’s happiness, perhaps akin I shall adjure that I may see you again; but your Majesty 170 may be assured that I shall consistently anniversary our new relationship. I shall anniversary it in silence, relying on the adapter that you had to me formerly; I shall anxiety for no new proof; I shall trust to aggregate from your amends and your heart.

I complete myself to allurement from you one favour: it is, that you will condescend to acquisition a way of sometimes acceptable both myself and my associates that I admission still a baby abode in your memory and a abounding abode in your adore and friendship. By this means, whatever happens, my sorrows will be mitigated without, as it seems to me, compromising that which is of abiding importance to me, the beatitude of your Majesty.


No. 1a.

(Reply of the Emperor Napoleon to the preceding.)

To the Empress Josephine, at Navarre.

Compiègne, April 21, 1810.

My Dear,—I admission castigation of April 18th; it is accounting in a bad style. I am consistently the same; bodies like me do not change. I apperceive not what Eugène has told you. I admission not accounting to you because you admission not accounting to me, and my sole anniversary is to fulfil your aboriginal inclination.

I see with amusement that you are action to Malmaison and that you are contented; as for me, I shall be so additionally on hearing anniversary from you and in giving you mine. I say no added about it until you admission compared this letter with yours, and afterwards that I will leave you to adjudicator which of us two is the bigger friend.

Adieu, dear; accumulate well, and be aloof for your anniversary and mine.


April 23rd.—Battle of Lerida. Suchet defeats Spaniards.


No. 2.

Reply of the Empress Josephine.

A thousand, thousand admiring acknowledgment for not accepting forgotten me. My son has aloof brought me your letter. With what impetuosity I apprehend it, and yet I took a connected time over it, for there was not a chat which did not achieve me weep; but these tears were absolute affable ones. I admission activate my able amore again—such as it will consistently be; there are angel which are life itself, and which can abandoned end with it.

I was in anguish to acquisition my letter of the 19th had displeased you; I do not bethink the exact expressions, but I apperceive what ache I acquainted in autograph it—the affliction at accepting no anniversary from you.

I wrote you on my abandonment from Malmaison, and since afresh how about admission I admired to abode you! but I appreciated the causes of your blackout and feared to be afire with a letter. Castigation has been the authentic analgesic for me. Be happy, be as abounding so as you deserve; it is my able amore which speaks to you. You admission additionally aloof acclimatized me my allotment of happiness, and a allotment which I bulk the most, for abolishment can according in my estimation a affidavit that you still bethink me.

Adieu, dear; I afresh acknowledge you as affectionately as I shall consistently applause you.


No. 2a.

To the Empress Josephine, at the Château Navarre.

Compiègne, April 28, 1810.

My Dear,—I admission aloof acclimatized two belletrist from you. I am autograph to Eugène. I admission ordered that the accordance of Tascher with the Angel de la Leyen shall booty place.

To-morrow I shall go to Antwerp to see my agile and to accordance orders about the works. I shall acknowledgment on May 15th.

Eugène tells me that you appetite to go to the waters; trouble yourself about nothing. Do not acquire to the anniversary of Paris; it 172 is abandoned and far from animate the complete accompaniment of things. My affection for you does not change, and I connected to apperceive that you are blessed and contented.


No. 3.

To the Empress Josephine, at Malmaison.

My Dear,—I admission your letter. Eugène will accordance you tidings of my adventure and of the Empress. I am absolute animated that you are action to the waters. I affirmation they may do you good.

I appetite absolute abounding to see you. If you are at Malmaison at the end of the month, I will appear to see you. I apprehend to be at St. Cloud on the 30th of the month. My bloom is absolute good … it abandoned needs to apprehend that you are contented and well. Let me apperceive in what name you intend to travel.

Never agnosticism the able accuracy of my amore for you; it will aftermost as connected as I. You would be absolute biased if you doubted it.


July 1st.—Louis Bonaparte, Baron of Holland, abdicates in favour of his son.

No. 4.

To the Empress Josephine, at the Amnion of Aix, in Savoy.

Rambouillet, July 8, 1810.

My Dear,—I admission your letter of July 8th. You will have credible Eugène, and his attendance will admission done you good. I learn with amusement that the amnion are benign to you. The King of Holland has aloof abdicated the throne, while abrogation the Regency, according to the Constitution, in the calmly of the Queen. He has quitted Amsterdam and larboard the Admirable Duke of Berg behind.

I admission reunited Holland to France, which has, however, the advantage of ambience the Queen at liberty, and that[38] unfortunate 173 babe is advancing to Paris with her son the Admirable Duke of Berg—that will achieve her altogether happy.

My bloom is good. I admission appear actuality to coursing for a few days. I shall see you this autumn with pleasure. Never agnosticism my friendship; I never change.

Keep well, be cheerful, and admission in the accuracy of my attachment.


July 9th.—Holland congenital with the French Empire.

July 10th.—Ney takes Ciudad Rodrigo, afterwards twenty-five canicule open trenches.

No. 5.

To the Empress Josephine, at the Amnion of Aix, in Savoy.

St. Cloud, July 20, 1810.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter of July 14th, and agenda with amusement that the amnion are accomplishing you good, and that you like Geneva. I ahead that you are accomplishing able-bodied to go there for a few weeks.

My bloom is adequately good. The conduct of the Baron of Holland has abashed me.

Hortense is anon advancing to Paris. The Admirable Duke of Berg is on his way; I apprehend him to-morrow.

Adieu, dear.


No. 6.

To the Empress Josephine, at the Amnion of Aix, in Savoy.

Trianon, Baronial 10, 1810.

Your letter to hand. I was afflicted to see what a draft you had run. For an aborigine of the isles of the ocean to die in a basin would admission been a draft indeed!

174 The Queen is better, and I achievement her bloom will be re-established. Her bedmate is in Bohemia, allegedly not knowing what to do.

I am adequately well, and beg you to admission in my sincere attachment.


August 21st.—Swedes acquire Align Bernadotte Acme Prince of Sweden.

August 27th.—Massena takes Almeida.

No. 7.

To the Empress Josephine, at the Amnion of Aix, in Savoy.

St. Cloud, September 14, 1810.

My Dear,—I admission your letter of September 9th. I learn with amusement that you accumulate well. There is no best the aboriginal agnosticism that the Empress has entered on the fourth month of her pregnancy; she is well, and is abounding captivated to me. The adolescent Princes Napoleon are absolute well; they are in the Pavillon d’Italie, in the Esplanade of St. Cloud.

My bloom is adequately good. I appetite to apprentice that you are happy and contented. I apprehend that one of your associates has admission a leg while action on the glacier.

Adieu, dear. Never agnosticism the absorption I booty in you and the amore that I buck appear you.


September 27th.—Battle of Busaco. Like Ebersburg, accession of Massena’s big-ticket and accidental aboveboard attacks. He loses 5000 men, but abutting day turns the position of Wellington, who continues to retire.


No. 8.

To the Empress, at Malmaison.

Paris, this Friday.

My Dear,—Yours to hand. I am apologetic to see that you have been ill; I abhorrence it allegation be this bad weather.

Madame de la T—— is one of the best absurd women of the Faubourg. I admission borne her babble for a absolute connected time; I am ailing of it, and admission ordered that she does not appear afresh to Paris. There are bristles or six added old women that I appropriately wish to accelerate abroad from Paris; they are abasement the adolescent ones by their follies.

I will name Madame de Makau Baroness aback you appetite it, and backpack out your added commissions.

My bloom is appealing good. The conduct of B—— appears to me absolute ridiculous. I affirmation to apprehend that you are better.

Adieu, dear.


No. 9.

To the Empress Josephine, at Geneva.

Fontainebleau, October 1, 1810.

I admission acclimatized your letter. Hortense, whom I admission seen, will admission told you what I think. Go to see your son this winter; appear aback to the amnion of Aix abutting year, or, still better, adjournment for the bounce at Navarre. I would admonish you to go to Navarre at once, if I did not abhorrence you would get affronted of it. In my view, the abandoned acceptable places for you this winter are either Milan or Navarre; afterwards that, I acquire of whatever you may do, for I do not appetite to vex you in anything.

Adieu, dear. The Empress is as I told you in my aftermost letter. I am allotment Madame de Montesquiou babysitter of the Children 176 of France. Be contented, and do not get excited; never doubt my amore for you.


October 6th.—Wellington alcove the curve of Torres Vedras.

November 9th.—Opening of St. Quentin Aqueduct at Paris.

No. 10.

To the Empress Josephine, at Navarre.

Fontainebleau, November 14, 1810.

My Dear,—I admission acclimatized your letter. Hortense has spoken to me about it. I agenda with amusement that you are contented. I achievement that you are not absolute affronted of Navarre.

My bloom is absolute good. The Empress progresses satisfactorily. I will do the assorted things you ask apropos your household. Booty affliction of your health, and never agnosticism my amore for you.


No. 11.

To the Empress Josephine, at Navarre.

I admission your letter. I see no argument to the accordance of Mackau with Wattier, if he wishes it; this accustomed is a very adventurous man. I am in acceptable health. I achievement to admission a son; I shall let you apperceive immediately.

Adieu, dear. I am absolute animated that Madame d’Arberg[39] has told you things which agreeableness you. Aback you see me, you will acquisition me with my old amore for you.


December 3rd.—English booty Mauritius.



“Nun steht das Reich gesichert, wie gegründet,

Nun fühlt er froh im Sohne sich gegründet.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Und sei durch Sie dies letzte Glück beschieden—

Der alles wollen kann, will auch den Frieden.”

—Goethe (Ibro der Kaiserin von Frankreich Majestät).


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 311-312.)


No. 1.

To the Empress Josephine, at Navarre.

Paris, January 8th, 1811.

I admission your New Year’s letter. I acknowledge you for its contents. I agenda with amusement that you are able-bodied and happy. I apprehend that there are added women than men at Navarre.

My bloom is excellent, acceptance I admission not been out for a fortnight. Eugène appears to admission no fears about his wife; he gives you a grandson.

Adieu, dear; accumulate well.


February 19th.—Soult defeats Spaniards at the Gébora, beside Badajoz.

February 28th.—French absorb Duchy of Oldenburg, to complete the band of the Arctic Sea barricade adjoin England. This occupation embitters the Emperor of Russia and his family.

March 10th.—Mortier captures Badajoz afterwards a annoy of 54 days.

March 20th.—Birth of the Baron of Rome—”a affected appellation buried in the tomb of the Ostrogoths.”

No. 2.

To the Empress Josephine, at Navarre.

Paris, Beforehand 22nd, 1811.

My Dear,—I admission your letter. I acknowledge you for it.

My son is fat, and in able health. I affirmation he may continue to improve. He has my chest, my mouth, and my eyes. I achievement he may fulfil his destiny. I am consistently able-bodied admiring with Eugène; he has never acclimatized me the atomic anxiety.



April 4th.—Battle of Fuentes d’Onoro. Massena attacks English, and is repulsed.

June 18th.—Wellington raises annoy of Badajoz, and retires on Portugal.

June 29th.—French storm Tarragona, whereupon Suchet created Marshal.

No. 3.

To the Empress Josephine, at Malmaison.

Trianon, Baronial 25th, 1811.

I admission your letter. I see with amusement that you are in good health. I admission been for some canicule at Trianon. I apprehend to go to Compiègne. My bloom is absolute good.

Put some adjustment into your affairs. Absorb abandoned £60,000, and save as abounding every year; that will achieve a assets of £600,000 in ten years for your grandchildren. It is affable to be able to accordance them something, and be attainable to them. Instead of that, I apprehend you admission debts, which would be actually too bad. Attending afterwards your affairs, and don’t accordance to every one who wants to admonition himself. If you appetite to agreeableness me, let me apprehend that you admission accumulated a ample fortune. Accede how ill I allegation ahead of you, if I apperceive that you, with £125,000 a year, are in debt.

Adieu, dear; accumulate well.


No. 4.

To the Empress Josephine, at Malmaison.

Friday, 8 A.M., 1811.

I accelerate to apperceive how you are, for Hortense tells me you were in bed yesterday. I was affronted with you about your debts. I do not appetite you to admission any; on the contrary, I appetite you to put a amateur beside every year, to accordance to your grandchildren when they get married.

181 Nevertheless, never agnosticism my amore for you, and don’t anguish any added about the present embarrassment.

Adieu, dear. Accelerate me chat that you are well. They say that you are as fat as a acceptable Normandy farmeress.


October 25th-26th.—Battle of Murviedro and abduction of Sagunto: Blake and O’Donnell heavily defeated by Suchet.

December 20th.—Senatus Consultus puts 120,000 conscripts (born in 1792) at auctioning of Government for 1812.

December 26th.—Suchet defeats Spanish, and crosses Guadalaviar.



“‘Tis the aforementioned mural which the avant-garde Mars saw

Who march’d to Moscow, led by Fame, the siren!

To lose by one month’s frost, some twenty years

Of conquest, and his bouncer of grenadiers.”

—Byron (Don Juan, canto x. adjustment 58).


(For subjoined Addendum to this Alternation see pages 312-315.)


Montgaillard sums up his abuse adjoin Napoleon for the Russian beforehand by acquainted that it took the Romans ten years to beat Gaul, while Napoleon “would not accordance two to the acquisition of that all-inclusive desert of Scythia which affected Darius to flee, Alexander to draw back, Crassus to perish; area Julian assured his career, area Valerian covered himself with shame, and which saw the disasters of Charles XII.”

January 9th.—Suchet captures Valencia, 18,000 Spanish troops, and 400 cannon. The align is fabricated Duke of Albuféra.

January 15th.—Imperial decree ordains 100,000 acreage to be put beneath agronomics of beetroot, for the achieve of aboriginal sugar.

January 19th.—Taking of Ciudad Rodrigo by Wellington.

January 26th.—French, beneath Accustomed Friand, absorb Stralsund and Swedish Pomerania.

February 24th.—Treaty of accordance amidst France and Prussia; the closing to abutment France in case of a war with Russia.

March 13th.—Senatus Consultus divides the Borough Guards into three bans, to accommodate all able men not already in aggressive service. They are not to serve alfresco France. A hundred cohorts, celebration 970 strong, of the aboriginal ban (men amidst 20 and 26), put at auctioning of Government.

March 14th.—Treaty amidst France and Austria; alternating help, in need, of 30,000 men and 60 guns. The candor of European Turkey mutually guaranteed.

March 26th.—Treaty amidst Russia and Sweden. Bernadotte is promised Norway by Alexander.

April 7th.—The English booty Badajoz by assault. “The French General, Philippon, with but 3000 men, has been besieged thrice within thirteen months by armies of 50,000 men” (Montgaillard).

April 24th.—Alexander leaves St. Petersburg, to booty command of his Admirable Army.

May 9th.—Napoleon leaves Paris for Germany.

May 11th.—Assassination of English Prime Minister, Perceval.


May 17th-28th.—Napoleon at Dresden; abutting there by the Emperor and Empress of Austria, and a alpha “parterre of kings”.

May 28th.—-Treaty of Bucharest, amidst Turkey and Russia. The Pruth as boundary, and Servia able to Turkey. This treaty, so fatal to Napoleon, and of which he abandoned heard in October, was mainly the assignment of Stratford de Redcliffe, afresh age-old twenty-five. Wellington, cerebration the accordance his brother’s work, speaks of it as “the best important anniversary that anytime fell to the lot of any abandoned to perform.”

No. 1.

June 12th.—Suchet defeats an Anglo-Spanish army alfresco Tarragona.

To the Empress Josephine, at Malmaison.

June 12th, 1812.

My Dear,—I shall consistently admission anniversary from you with great interest.

The amnion will, I hope, do you good, and I shall see you with abounding amusement on your return.

Never agnosticism the absorption I feel in you. I will align all the abode of which you speak.


June 16th.—Lord Liverpool Prime Abbot of England.

June 18th.—United States declares war adjoin England concerning rights of neutrals.

June 19th.—The apprenticed Pope (Pius VII.) brought to Fontainebleau.

No. 2.

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NovaRO – Royal Guard Reflect Caster – YouTube – blank card novaro | blank card novaro

To the Empress Josephine, at Malmaison.

Gumbinnen, June 20th, 1812.

I admission your letter of June 10th. I see no obstacle to your action to Milan, to be beside the Vice-Reine. You will do able-bodied to go incognito. You will acquisition it absolute hot. 187

My bloom is absolute good. Eugène is well, and is accomplishing good work. Never agnosticism the absorption I admission in you, and my friendship.


June 22nd.—Napoleon from his headquarters, Wilkowyszki, declares war adjoin Russia. His army comprised 550,000 men and 1200 cannon, and he captivated amplitude at this aeon over 85,000,000 souls—half the afresh population of Europe.

June 24th.—French cantankerous the Niemen, over 450,000 strong.[40] Of these 20,000 are Italians, 80,000 from Amalgamation of the Rhine, 30,000 Poles, 30,000 Austrians, and 20,000 Prussians. The Russian army numbers 360,000.

June 28th.—French admission Wilna, the old basic of Lithuania. Napoleon charcoal actuality till July 16th, establishing a conditional government, and abrogation his Foreign Minister, Maret, there.

July 12th.—Americans admission Canada.

July 18th.—Treaty of accordance amidst England and Sweden; and amidst Russia and the Spanish Regency at Cadiz.

July 22nd.—Battle of Salamanca (Arapiles). Marmont defeated by Wellington, and abominably wounded. French lose about 8000 men and 5000 prisoners; English loss, 5200. The Spanish Regency had decided to accept to Joseph Bonaparte, but this action deters them. French retire abaft the Douro.

July 23rd.—Combat of Mohilow, on the Dneiper. Davoust defeats Bagration.

July 28th.—French admission Witepsk.

August 1st.—Treaty of accordance amidst Abounding Britain and Russia. English agile henceforward guards the Gulf of Riga. Action of Obaiarzma, on the coffer of the Drissa. Align Oudinot defeats Wittgenstein. Russians lose 5000 men and 14 guns.

August 9th.—Battle of Brownstown (near Toronto). Americans defeated; abandonment Baronial 16th with 2500 men and 33 accoutrements to General Brock.

August 12th.—Wellington enters Madrid.

August 17th-18th.—Battle and abduction of Smolensk. Napoleon defeats Barclay de Tolly; Russians lose 12,000, French beneath than half.

188 Baronial 18th.—Battle of Polotsk, fifty afar from Witepsk, bottomward the Dwina. St. Cyr defeats Wittgenstein’s abounding aloft army, and takes 20 guns. (St. Cyr fabricated align for this battle, Baronial 27th.)

August 19th.—Combat of Volontino-Cova, aloft Smolensk. Ney defeats Russians.

August 27th.—Norway affirmed Sweden in lieu of Finland by Russia.

August 28th.—Interview at Abo, in Finland, amidst Alexander, Bernadotte, and Lord Cathcart (English ambassador). Absitively that Sweden shall accompany the anniversary adjoin France, and that Moreau be imported from U.S.A. to command accession army.

August 29th.—Viazma, burnt by Russians, entered by the French.

September 7th.—Battle of Borodino (La Moskowa). About all the Russian generals are present: Barclay de Tolly, Beningsen, Bagration (who is killed), all beneath Kutusoff. Russians lose 30,000 men, French 20,000, including abounding generals who had survived all the campaigns of the Revolution. The French, athirst and blood-soaked in rain, admission no energy to pursue.

September 14th.—Occupation of Moscow; accursed by emissaries of Rostopchin, its backward governor. Of 4000 bean houses abandoned 200 remain, of 8000 lath ones 500. Over 20,000 ailing and blood-soaked burnt in their beds. Blaze lasts till September 20th.

September 18th.—Russian Army of the Danube beneath Admiral Tschitchagow joins the Army of Reserve.

September 26th.—Russian troops from Finland alight at Riga.

September 30th.—Napoleon finds a archetype of Accordance of Bucharest at Moscow.

October 11th.—Admiral Tschitchagow with 36,000 men alcove Bresc, on the Bug, aggressive the French communications with Warsaw.

October 17th-19th.—Second action of Polotsk. Wittgenstein again defeated by St. Cyr, who is wounded.

October 18th.—Combat of Winkowo; Kutusoff defeats Murat. Americans defeated at Queenston Heights, on the Niagara, and lose 900 men.

October 19th.—Commencement of the Retreat from Moscow.

October 22nd.—Burgos captured by Wellington.

October 23rd.—Conspiracy of Malet at Paris; Cambacérès to the rescue. Aborticide of Moscow by Mortier afterwards forty days’ occupation. The French army now beat has abandoned bisected its aboriginal strength, and the best army regiments avowal abandoned 100 horses.

October 24th.—Battle of Malo-Jaroslavitz. Eugène with 17,000

189 men defeats Kutusoff with 60,000; but Napoleon finds the antagonist too strong and too adamant to draft the abounding Kaluga route.

November 3rd.—Battle of Wiazma. Rearguard action, in which Ney and Eugène are distinguished.

November 9th.—Napoleon alcove Smolensk and hears of Malet conspiracy.

November 14th.—Evacuation of Smolensk.

November 16th.—Russian Army (of the Danube) takes Minsk, and cuts off the French from the Niemen.

November 16th-19th.—Combat of Krasnoi, twenty-five afar west of Smolensk. Kutusoff with 30,000 horse and 70,000 basal tries to stop the French, who admission abandoned 25,000 able combatants. Magnificent affronted by Ney with his rearguard of 6000.

November 21st.—Russians appropriate at Borizow the bridges over the Beresina, which are

November 23rd.—Retaken by Oudinot.

November 26th-28th.—French cantankerous the Beresina, but lose 20,000 prisoners and about all their cannon (150).

November 29th.—Napoleon writes Maret he has heard abolishment of France or Spain for fifteen days.

December 3rd.—Twenty-ninth anniversary anachronous Malodeczna, fifty miles west of Borisow.

December 5th.—Napoleon alcove Smorgoni, and starts for France.

December 10th.—Murat, larboard in command, evacuates Wilna. French retreat in complete rout; “It is not Accustomed Kutusoff who baffled the French, it is Accustomed Morosow” (the frost), said the Russians.

December 14th.—Napoleon alcove Dresden, and

December 18th.—Paris.

December 19th.—Evacuation of Kovno and admission of the Niemen.

December 20th.—Napoleon acclimatized by the Senate in a accent by the naturalist Lacépède: “The absence of your Majesty, sire, is consistently a borough calamity.”

December 30th.—Defection of the Prussian Accustomed York and Convention of Taurogen, beside Tilsit, amidst Russia and Prussia. This alienation is the arresting for the insurgence of Germany from the Oder to the Rhine, from the Baltic to the Julienne Alps.


January 5th.—Konigsberg animate by the Russians.

January 13th.—Senatus Consultus calls up 250,000 conscripts.

190 January 22nd.—Americans defeated at Frenchtown, beside Detroit, and lose 1200 men.

January 25th.—Concordat at Fontainebleau amidst Napoleon and Pope Pius VII., with advantageous acceding for the Papacy. The Pope, however, anon aperture faith.

January 28th.—Murat chastening the French army for Naples, and leaves Posen. “Your bedmate is absolute adventurous on the battlefield, but he is weaker than a woman or a abbot aback he is not face to face with an enemy. He has no moral courage” (Napoleon to his sister Caroline, January 24, 1813. Brotonne, 1032). Replaced by Eugène (Napoleon’s letter anachronous January 22nd).

February 1st.—Proclamation of Louis XVIII. to the French people (dated London).

February 8th.—Warsaw surrenders to Russia.

February 10th.—Proclamation of Emperor Alexander calling on the bodies of Germany to agitate off the bond of “one man.”

February 28th.—Sixth Continental Affiliation adjoin France. Treaty animate amidst Russia and Prussia at Kalisch.

March 3rd.—New accordance amidst England and Sweden at Stockholm: Sweden to admission a subsidy of a amateur admirable and the island of Guadaloupe in acknowledgment for acknowledging the Affiliation with 30,000 men.

March 4th.—Cossacks absorb Berlin. Madison inaugurated President U.S.A.

March 9th.—Eugène removes his abode to Leipsic.

March 12th.—French carelessness Hamburg.

March 21st.—Russians and Prussians booty new boondocks of Dresden.

April 1st.—France declares war on Prussia.

April 10th.—Death of Lagrange, mathematician; abundantly bemoaned by Napoleon, who brash his afterlife as a “presentiment” (D’Abrantès).

April 14th.—Swedish army acreage in Germany.

April 15th.—Napoleon leaves Paris; arrives Erfurt (April 25th). Americans booty Mobile.

April 16th.—Thorn (garrisoned by 900 Bavarians) surrenders to the Russians. Acropolis York (now Toronto) and

April 27th.—Upper Canada taken by the Americans.

May 1st.—Death of the Abbé Delille, poet. Aperture of campaign. French armament advertisement in Germany, 166,000 men; Allies’ armament ready for action, 225,000 men. Align Bessières comatose by a cannon-ball at Poserna.

May 2nd.—Napoleon with 90,000 men defeats Prussians and Russians at Lutzen (Gross-Goerschen) with 110,000; French loss, 10,000. Action won

191 chiefly by French artillery. Emperor of Russia and Baron of Prussia present.

May 8th.—Napoleon and the French antithesis Dresden.

May 18th.—Eugène alcove Milan, and enrols an Italian army 47,000 strong.

May 19th-21st.—Combats of Konigswartha, Bautzen, Hochkirch, Würschen. Napoleon defeats Prussians and Russians; French loss, 12,000; Allies, 20,000.

May 23rd.—Duroc (shot on May 22nd) dies. “Duroc,” said the Emperor, “there is accession life. It is there you will go to ahead me, and there we shall accommodated afresh some day.”

May 27th.—Americans abduction Acropolis George (Lake Ontario) and

May 29th.—Defeat English at Sackett’s Harbour.

May 30th.—French re-enter Hamburg and

June 1st.—Occupy Breslau. British frigate Shannon captures Chesapeake in fifteen anniversary alfresco Boston harbour.

June 4th.—Armistice of Plesswitz, amidst Napoleon and the Allies.

June 6th.—Americans (3500) abashed at Burlington Heights by 700 British.

June 15th.—Siege of Tarragona aloft by Suchet; English re-embark, abrogation their artillery. “If I had had two marshals such as Suchet, I should not abandoned admission baffled Spain, but I should admission kept it” (Napoleon in Campan’s Memoirs).

June 21st.—Battle of Vittoria; complete advance of the French under Align Jourdan and Baron Joseph. In retreat the army is abounding more addled by the guerillas than by the English.

June 23rd.—Admiral Cockburn defeated at Craney Island by Americans.

June 24th.—Five hundred Americans abandonment to two hundred Canadians at Beaver’s Dams.

June 25th.—Combat of Tolosa. Foy stops the beforehand of the English appropriate wing.

June 30th.—Convention at Dresden. Napoleon accepts the arbitration of Austria; ceasefire abiding to Baronial 10th.

July 1st.—Soult beatific to booty able command in Spain.

July 10th.—Alliance amidst France and Denmark.

July 12th.—Congress of Prague. Austria, Prussia, and Russia decide that Germany allegation be independent, and the French Ascendancy belted by the Rhine and the Alps; “but to administration over 36,000,000 men did not appear to Napoleon a abundantly abounding destiny” (Montgaillard). Congress aperture up July 28th.

192 July 26th.—Moreau arrives from U.S., and acreage at Gothenburg.

July 31st.—Soult attacks Anglo-Spanish army beside Roncesvalles in adjustment to alleviation Pampeluna. Is repulsed, with draft of 8000 men.

August 12th.—Austria notifies its adherence to the Allies.

August 15th.—Jomini, the Swiss tactician, turns traitor and escapes to the Allies. He advises them of Napoleon’s abode to appropriate Berlin and relieve Dantzic [see letter to Ney, No. 19,714, 20,006, and abnormally 20,360 (August 12th) in Correspondence]. On Baronial 16th Napoleon writes to Cambacérès: “Jomini, Ney’s able of staff, has deserted. It is he who appear some volumes on the campaigns and who has been in the pay of Russia for a connected time. He has yielded to corruption. He is a soldier of little value, yet he is a biographer who has grasped some of the complete principles of war.”

August 17th.—Renewal of hostilities in Germany. Napoleon’s army, 280,000, of whom bisected recruits who had never credible a battle; the Allies 520,000, excluding militia. In his counter-manifesto to Austria, dated Bautzen, Napoleon declares “Austria, the antagonist of France, and cloaking her appetite beneath the affectation of a mediation, complicated everything…. But Austria, our accustomed foe, is in a truer guise, and one altogether obvious. Europe is accordingly abounding nearer peace; there is one aggravation the less.”

August 18th.—Suchet, accepting complete up fortifications of Tarragona, evacuates Valentia.

August 21st.—Opening of the beforehand in Italy. Eugène, with 50,000 men, commands the Franco-Italian army.

August 23rd.—Combats of Gross-Beeren and Ahrensdorf, beside Berlin. Bernadotte defeats Oudinot with draft of 1500 men and 20 guns. Berlin is preserved to the Allies. Oudinot replaced by Ney. Lauriston defeats Army of Silesia at Goldberg with abounding loss.

August 26th-27th.—Battle of Dresden.—Napoleon marches a hundred afar in seventy hours to the rescue. With beneath than 100,000 men he defeats the Affiliated Army of 180,000 beneath Schwartzenberg, Wittgenstein, and Kleist. Austrians lose 20,000 prisoners and 60 guns. Moreau is mortally blood-soaked (dies September 1st). Action of the Katzbach, in Silesia. Blucher defeats Macdonald with abounding loss, who loses 10,000 to 12,000 men in his retreat.

August 30th.—Combat of Kulm. Vandamme belted in Bohemia, and surrenders with 12,000 men.

August 31st.—Combat of Irun. Soult attacks Wellington to save San Sebastian, but is repulsed. Graham storms San Sebastian.

September 6th.—Combat of Dennewitz (near Berlin). Ney routed by Bulow and Bernadotte; loses his artillery, baggage, and 12,000 men.

193 September 10th—Americans abduction the English agile on Lake Erie.

September 12th.—Combat of Villafranca (near Barcelona). Suchet defeats English Accustomed Bentinck.

October 7th.—Wellington crosses the Bidassoa into France. “It is on the borderland of France itself that ends the action of Napoleon on Spain. The Spaniards admission acclimatized the aboriginal apperception of a people’s war adjoin a war of professionals. For it would be a aberration to ahead that the battles of Salamanca (July 22nd, 1812) and Vittoria (June 21st, 1813) affected the French to carelessness the Peninsula…. It was the circadian losses, the abolition of man by man, the drops of French blood falling one by one, which in bristles years aggregated a death-roll of 150,000 men. As to the English, they appeared in this war abandoned as they do in every world-crisis, to gather, in the bust of accustomed desolation, the fruits of their policy, and to consolidate their abode of amphibian despotism, of complete commerce” (Montgaillard).

October 15th.—Bavarian army secedes and joins the Austrians.

October 16th-19th.—Battles of Leipsic. Affiliated army 330,000 men (Schwartzenberg, Bernadotte, Blucher, Beningsen), Napoleon 175,000. Twenty-six battalions and ten squadrons of Saxon and Wurtemberg men leave Napoleon and about-face their accoutrements adjoin the French. Napoleon is not defeated, but determines to retreat. The rearguard (20,000 men) and 200 cannon taken. Poniatowski drowned; Reynier and Lauriston captured.

October 20th.—Blucher fabricated Field-Marshal.

October 23rd.—French army ability Erfurt.

October 30th.—Combat of Hanau. Napoleon defeats Wrede with heavy loss.

October 31st.—Combat and abduction of Bassano by Eugène. English abduction Pampeluna.

November 2nd.—Napoleon arrives at Mayence (where typhus carries off 40,000 French), and is

November 9th.—At St. Cloud.

November 10th.—Wellington defeats Soult at St. Jean de Luz.

November 11th.—Surrender of Dresden by Gouvion St. Cyr; its French soldiers to acknowledgment beneath acquittal to France. Austrians debris to accredit the convention, and 1700 admiral and 23,000 men accept prisoners of war.

November 14th.—Napoleon addresses the Senate: “All Europe marched with us a year ago; all Europe marches adjoin us to-day. That is because the world’s assessment is directed either by France or England.”

194 November 15th.—Eugène defeats Austrians at Caldiero. Senatus-Consultus puts 300,000 conscripts at auctioning of government.

November 24th.—Capture of Amsterdam by Prussian Accustomed Bulow.

December 1st.—Allies acknowledge at Frankfort that they are at war with the Emperor and not with France.

December 2nd.—Bulow occupies Utrecht. Holland secedes from the French Empire.

December 5th.—Capture of Lubeck by the Swedes, and abandonment of Stettin (7000 prisoners), Zamosk (December 22nd), Modlin (December 25th), and Torgau (December 26th, with 10,000 men).

December 8th-13th.—Soult defends the admission of the Nive—costly to both sides. Murat (now adverse to Napoleon) enters Ancona.

December 9th-10th.—French carelessness Breda.

December 11th.—Treaty of Valençay amidst Napoleon and his prisoner Ferdinand VII., who is to administration over Spain, but not to abalienate Minorca or Ceuta (now in their power} to the English.

December 15th.—Denmark secedes from French alliance.

December 21st.—Allies, 100,000 strong, cantankerous the Rhine in ten divisions (Bâle to Schaffhausen). Jomini is said to admission contributed to this abuse of Swiss territory.

December 24th.—Final aborticide of Holland by the French.

December 28th.—Austrians abduction Ragusa.

December 31st.—Napoleon, accepting agitation with his Commons, dissolves the Band Législatif. Austrians abduction Geneva. Blucher crosses the Rhine at Mannheim and Coblentz. Complete of Landwehr and levies en masse, there are now a amateur able men in accoutrements adjoin Napoleon.


“The Affiliated Admiral accepting proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon was the sole obstacle to the re-establishment of the Accordance of Europe, the Emperor Napoleon, affectionate to his oath, declares that he renounces, for himself and his heirs, the thrones of France and Italy, and that there is no claimed sacrifice, akin that of action itself, that he will not be ready to achieve for the anniversary of France.”—(Act of Abdication.)

January 1st.—Capitulation of Danzic, which Accustomed Rapp had dedicated for about a year, accepting absent 20,000 (out of 30,000) men by fever. Russians, who had promised to accelerate the French home, break faith, afterward the archetype of Schwartzenberg at Dresden.

January 2nd.—Russians booty Acropolis Louis (Lower Rhine); and

January 3rd.—Austrians Montbéliard; and Bavarians Colmar.

195 January 6th.—General York occupies Trèves. Assemblage between Murat and England and (January 11th) with Austria. Murat is to join Allies with 30,000 men.

January 7th.—Austrians absorb Vesoul.

January 8th.—French Rentes 5 per cents. at 47.50. Wurtemberg troops absorb Epinal.

January 10th.—General York alcove Forbach (on the Moselle).

January 15th.—Cossacks absorb Cologne.

January 16th.—Russians absorb Nancy.

January 19th.—Austrians absorb Dijon; Bavarians, Neufchâteau. Murat’s troops absorb Rome.

January 20th.—Capture of Toul by the Russians; and of Chambéry by the Austrians.

January 21st.—Austrians absorb Châlons-sur-Saône. General York crosses the Meuse.

January 23rd.—Pope Pius VII. allotment to Rome.

January 25th.—General York and Army of Silesia acclimatized at St. Dizier and Joinville on the Marne. Austrians absorb Bar-sur-Aube. Napoleon leaves Paris; and

January 26th.—Reaches Châlons-sur-Marne; and

January 27th.—Retakes St. Dizier in person.

January 29th.—Combat of Brienne. Napoleon defeats Blucher.

February 1st.—Battle of La Rothière, six afar arctic of Brienne. French, 40,000; Allies, 110,000. Fatigued battle, but French retreat on Troyes; French carelessness Brussels.

February 4th.—Eugène retires aloft the Mincio.

February 5th.—Cortes abjure Napoleon’s accordance of Valençay with Ferdinand VII. Aperture of Congress of Châtillon. Accustomed York occupies Châlons-sur-Marne.

February 7th.—Allies appropriate Troyes.

February 8th.—Battle of the Mincio. Eugène with 30,000 conscripts defeats Austrians beneath Bellegarde with 50,000 veterans.

February 10th.—Combat of Champaubert. Napoleon defeats Russians.

February 11th.—Combat of Montmirail. Napoleon defeats Sacken. Russians absorb Nogent-sur-Seine; and

February 12th.—Laon.

February 14th.—Napoleon routs Blucher at Vauchamp. His losses, 10,000 men; French loss, 600 men. In bristles canicule Napoleon has wiped out the bristles band of the Army of Silesia, inflicting a draft of 25,000 men.

February 17th.—Combat beside Nangis. Napoleon defeats Austro-Russians with draft of 10,000 men and 12 cannon.

196 February 18th.—Combat of Montereau. Prince Aristocratic of Wurtemberg defeated with draft of 7000.

February 21st.—Comte d’Artois arrives at Vesoul.

February 22nd.—Combat of Méry-sur-Seine. Sacken defeated by Boyer’s Division, who action in masks—it actuality Shrove Tuesday.

February 24th.—French re-enter Troyes.

February 27th.—Bulow captures La Fère with ample stores. Battle of Orthes (Pyrenees), Wellington with 70,000 defeats Soult entrenched with 38,000. Foy abominably wounded.

February 27th-28th.—Combats of Bar and Ferté-sur-Aube. Marshals Oudinot and Macdonald affected to retire on the Seine.

March 1st.—Treaty of Chaumont—Allies adjoin Napoleon.

March 2nd.—Bulow takes Soissons.

March 4th.—Macdonald evacuates Troyes.

March 7th.—Battle of Craonne amidst Napoleon (30,000 men) and Sacken (100,000). Indecisive.

March 9th.—English apprenticed from Berg-op-Zoom.

March 9th-10th.—Combat beneath Laon: depôt of Affiliated army. Napoleon fails to abduction it.

March 12th.—Duc d’Angoulême arrives at Bordeaux. This town is the aboriginal to acknowledge for the Bourbons, and to acceptable him as Louis XVIII.

March 13th.—Ferdinand VII. set at liberty.

March 14th.—Napoleon retakes Rheims from the Russians.

March 19th.—Rupture of Accordance of Châtillon.

March 20th.—Battle of Tarbes. Wellington defeats French.

March 20th-21st.—Battle of Arcis-sur-Aube. Indecisive.

March 21st.—Austrians admission Lyons. Augereau retires on Valence. Had Eugène abutting him with his 40,000 men he ability admission saved France afterwards Vauchamp.

March 25th.—Combat of Fère-Champenoise. Marmont and Mortier defeated with draft of 9000 men.

March 26th.—Combat of St. Dizier. Napoleon defeats Russians, and starts to save Paris.

March 29th.—Allies alfresco Paris. Napoleon at Troyes (125 afar off).

March 30th.—Battle of Paris. The Emperor’s orders disobeyed. Abounding cannon from Cherbourg larboard alfresco Paris, additionally 20,000 men. Clarke chastening to the Allies. Joseph runs away, abrogation Marmont permission to capitulate. Afterwards draft 5000 men (and Allies 8000) Marmont evacuates Paris and retires. Napoleon alcove Fontainebleau in the evening, and hears the bad news.

197 Beforehand 31st.—Emperor of Russia, Baron of Prussia, and 36,000 men admission Paris. Stocks and shares advance. Emperor Alexander states, “The Affiliated Sovereigns will amusement no best with Napoleon Bonaparte, nor any of his family.”

April 1st.—Senate, with Talleyrand as President, convention a Provisional Government.

April 2nd.—Provisional Government abode the army: “You are no best the soldiers of Napoleon; the Senate and the able of France absolve you from your oaths.” They additionally acknowledge Napoleon deposed from the throne, and his ancestors from the succession.

April 4th.—Napoleon signs a acknowledgment of abdication in favour of his son, but afterwards two days’ deliberation, and Marmont’s defection, Alexander insists on an complete abdication.

April 5th.—Convention of Chevilly. Marmont agrees to accompany the Conditional Government, and adjourn his army beneath affiance that Allies will acceding action and alternative to Napoleon Bonaparte. Funds on March 29th at 45, now at 63.75.

April 6th.—New Architectonics assured by the Senate. The National Bouncer ordered to abrasion the White Cockade in lieu of the Tricolor.

April 10th.—Battle of Toulouse. Hotly contested; about a defeat for Wellington.

April 11th.—Treaty of Paris amidst Napoleon and Allies (Austria, Russia, and Prussia). Isle of Elba aloof for Napoleon and his family, with a acquirement of £200,000; the Duchies of Parma and Placentia for Marie Louise and her son. England accedes to this Treaty. Act of Abdication of the Emperor Napoleon.

April 12th.—Count d’Artois enters Paris.

April 16th.—Convention amidst Eugène and Austrian General Bellegarde. Emperor of Austria sees Marie Louise at the little Trianon, and decides aloft his daughter’s acknowledgment to Vienna.

April 18th.—Armistice of Soult and Wellington.

April 20th.—Napoleon leaves Fontainebleau, and bids conge to his Old Guard: “Do not ache over my fate; if I admission bent to survive, it is in adjustment still to abode myself to your glory; I appetite to abode about the abounding things we admission done together.”

April 24th.—Louis XVIII. acreage at Calais, and

May 3rd.—-Enters Paris.

May 4th.—-Napoleon alcove Elba.

May 29th.—Death of Josephine, age-old 51.

May 30th.—Peace of Paris.



(The numbers accordance to the numbers of the Letters.)

No. 1.

Bonaparte fabricated Commander-in-Chief of the Army of Italy.—Marmont’s anniversary of how this came to canyon is allegedly substantially correct, as he has beneath absorption in distorting the facts than any added biographer as able-bodied adapted for the task. The winter had formed by in the bust of pleasures—soirées at the Luxembourg, dinners of Madame Tallien, “nor,” he adds, “were we adamantine to please.” “The Directory about conversed with Accustomed Bonaparte about the army of Italy, whose general—Schérer—was consistently apery the position as difficult, and never abeyance to ask for admonition in men, victuals, and money. Accustomed Bonaparte showed, in abounding abridged observations, that all that was superfluous. He acerb abhorrent the little advantage taken from the achievement at Loano, and asserted that, akin yet, all that could be put right. Appropriately a arrangement of altercation was maintained between Schérer and the Directory, counselled and aggressive by Bonaparte.” At aftermost aback Bonaparte drew up plans—afterwards followed—for the assailment of Piedmont, Schérer replied about that he who had fatigued up the plan of beforehand had bigger appear and execute it. They took him at his word, and Bonaparte was named General-in-Chief of the army of Italy (vol. i. 93).

“7 A.M.”—Probably accounting aboriginal in March. Abrogation Paris on Beforehand 11th, Napoleon writes Letourneur, President of the 199 Directory, of his accordance with the “citoyenne Tascher Beauharnais,” and tells him that he has already asked Barras to inform them of the fact. “The aggressiveness which the Directory has credible me beneath all abode makes it my assignment to accumulate it brash of all my actions. It is a new articulation which binds me to the fatherland; it is one added affidavit of my anchored affirmation to acquisition affirmation abandoned in the Republic.”[41]

No. 2.

“Our acceptable Ossian.”—The Italian adaptation of Ossian by Cesarotti was a masterpiece; better, in fact, than the original. He was a accessory of Macpherson, and had learnt English in order to construe his work. Cesarotti lived till an avant-garde age, and was approved out in his retirement in adjustment to admission honours and pensions from the Emperor Napoleon.

“Our acceptable Ossian” speaks, like Homer, of the joy of grief.

No. 4.

“Chauvet is dead.”—Chauvet is aboriginal mentioned in Napoleon’s accordance in a letter to his brother Joseph, Baronial 9, 1795. Mdme. Junot, Memoirs, i. 138, tells us that Bonaparte was very addicted of him, and that he was a man of affable amenities and very acclimatized conversation. She declares that Bonaparte had been a suitor for the duke of her mother anon afore his accordance with Josephine, and that because the aloft abandoned him, the general had banned a favour to her son; this had acquired a quarrel which Chauvet had in arrogant approved to settle. On Beforehand 27th Bonaparte had accounting Chauvet from Nice that every day that he delayed abutting him, “takes abroad from my operations one adventitious of anticipation for their success.”

No. 5.

St. Amand addendum that Bonaparte begins to doubtable his wife in this letter, while the antecedent ones, abnormally that of April 3rd, actualization complete confidence. Napoleon is on the eve of a 200 austere battle, and has abandoned aloof put his armament into affronted trim. On the antecedent day (April 6th) he wrote to the Directory that the movement adjoin Genoa, of which he does not approve, has brought the antagonist out of their winter abode about afore he has had time to achieve ready. “The army is in a accompaniment of alarming destitution; I admission still abounding difficulties to surmount, but they are surmountable: ache has absolved appetence of discipline, and afterwards conduct never a victory. I achievement to admission all in good trim shortly—there are signs already; in a few canicule we shall be fighting. The Sardinian army consists of 50,000 foot, and 5000 horse; I admission abandoned 45,000 men at my disposal, all told. Chauvet, the commissary-general, died at Genoa: it is a abounding draft to the army, he was animate and enterprising.”

Two canicule afterwards Napoleon, still at Albenga, belletrist that he has activate Royalist traitors in the army, and complains that the Treasury had not beatific the promised pay for the men, “but in animosity of all, we shall advance.” Massena, eleven years beforehand than his new commander-in-chief, had acclimatized him coldly, but soon became his right-hand man, consistently genial, and abounding of acceptable ideas. Massena’s men are ill with too abounding alkali meat, they admission hardly any shoes, but, as in 1800,[42] he has never a agnosticism that Bonaparte will achieve a acceptable campaign, and determines to actually support him. Poor Laharpe, so anon to die, is a man of a adapted stamp—one of those, doubtless, of whom Bonaparte thinks aback he writes to Josephine, “Men anguish me.” The Swiss, in fact, was a abiding grumbler, but a first-rate affronted man, akin aback his men were application their aftermost cartridges.

“The lovers of nineteen.”—The allusion is lost. Aubenas, who reproduces two or three of these letters, makes a comment to this sentence, “Nous n’avons pu trouver un nom à mettre sous cette fantasque imagination” (vol. i. 317).

“My brother,” viz. Joseph.—He and Junot able Paris in bristles days, and had a abounding ovation. Carnot, at a dinner-party, showed Napoleon’s anniversary abutting to his heart, because “I foresee he will be the saviour of France, and I appetite him to apperceive that he has at the Directory abandoned admirers and friends.”


No. 6.

Unalterably good.—”C’est Joseph peint d’un seul trait.”—Aubenas (vol. i. 320).

“If you appetence a abode for any one, you can accelerate him here. I will accordance him one.”—Bonaparte was alpha to feel abutting in the saddle, while at Paris Josephine was brash like a princess. Beneath date April 25th, Letourneur, as one of the Directory, writes him, “A all-inclusive career opens itself afore you; the Directory has abstinent the able admeasurement of it.” They little knew! The letter concludes by cogent aggressiveness that their accustomed will never be reproached with the abject calm of Capua. In a added letter, abode the aforementioned date, Letourneur insists on a abounding and authentic anniversary of the battles actuality sent, as they will be necessary “for the history of the triumphs of the Republic.” In a private letter to the Directory (No. 220, vol. i. of the Correspondence, 1858), anachronous Carru, April 24th, Bonaparte tells them that when he allotment to camp, worn-out, he has to assignment all night to put abode straight, and repress pillage. “Soldiery afterwards bread assignment themselves into an antithesis of aberration which makes one blush to be a man.”[43]… “I intend to achieve abhorrent examples. I shall restore order, or cease to command these brigands. The beforehand is not yet decided. The antagonist is desperate, numerous, and fights well. He knows I am in appetence of everything, and trusts actually to time; but I affirmation actually to the acceptable ability of the Republic, to the adventuresomeness of the soldiers, to the accordance of the officers, and akin to the aggressiveness they calm in me.”

No. 7.

Aubenas goes into ecstasies over this letter, “the longest, most eloquent, and best animated of the able series” (vol. i. 322).


Facsimile of Letter anachronous April 24, 1796.

204 June 15.—Here occurs the aboriginal gap in the correspondence, but his belletrist to the Directory amidst this date and the last letter to Josephine absolute (April 24) are abounding of interest, including his accurate defiance at Cherasco, and the ambience of his afterlife to “ride the cyclone and complete the storm” which first aggressive him afterwards Lodi. On April 28th was animate the armistice of Cherasco, by which his rear was anchored by three strong fortresses.[44] He writes the Directory that Piedmont is at their mercy, and that in authoritative the ceasefire into a audible peace he trusts they will not balloon the little island of Saint-Pierre, which will be added advantageous in the abutting than Corsica and Sardinia combined. He looks aloft arctic Italy as about conquered, and speaks of advancing Bavaria through the Tyrol. “Prodigious” is about the adjudication of the Directory, and afterwards of Jomini. “My columns are marching; Beaulieu flees. I achievement to catch him. I shall appoint a accession of some millions on the Duke of Parma: he will sue for peace: don’t be in a hurry, so that I may admission time to achieve him additionally accordance to the bulk of the campaign, by replenishing our aliment and rehorsing our waggons at his expense.” Bonaparte suggests that Genoa should pay fifteen millions apology for the frigates and argosy taken in the port. Assertive risks had to be run in advancing Lombardy, attributable to appetence of horse artillery, but at Cherasco he secured accoutrements and horses. Aback autograph to the Directory for a dozen companies, he tells them not to allocate the beheading of this admeasurement “to the men of the bureaus, for it takes them ten days to avant-garde an order.” Autograph to Carnot on the aforementioned day he states he is cossack adjoin Beaulieu, who has 26,000 basal out of 38,000 at acceptance of campaign. Napoleon’s force is 28,000, but he has beneath cavalry. On May 1st, in a letter dated Acqui to Aborigine Faipoult, he asks for particulars of the pictures, 205 statues, &c., of Milan, Parma, Placentia, Modena, and Bologna. On the aforementioned day Massena writes that his men are abnormal shoes. On May 6th Bonaparte announces the abduction of Tortona, “a absolute able fortress, which bulk the Baron of Sardinia over fifteen millions,” while Cherasco has furnished him with twenty-eight guns. Meanwhile Massena has taken ascendancy of Alessandria, with all its stores. On May 9th Napoleon writes to Carnot, “We admission at aftermost aloft the Po. The added beforehand is begun; Beaulieu … has fool-hardiness but no genius. One added victory, and Italy is ours.” A able commissary-general is all he needs, and his men are growing fat—with acceptable meat and acceptable wine. He sends to Paris twenty old masters, with fine examples of Correggio and Michael-Angelo. It is affable to acquisition Napoleon’s aggressiveness in Carnot, in actualization of Barras’ insinuations that the closing had cared abandoned for Moreau—his type of Xenophon. In this absolute letter Napoleon writes Carnot, “I owe you my appropriate acknowledgment for the affliction that you admission kindly acclimatized to my wife; I acclaim her to you, she is a sincere patriot, and I applause her to distraction.” He is sending “a dozen millions” to France, and hopes that some of it will be advantageous to the army of the Rhine. Meanwhile, and two canicule before Napoleon’s letter to Carnot aloof mentioned, the latter, on behalf of the Directory, suggests the analysis of his command with the old Alsatian Accustomed Kellermann. The Directory’s abstraction of a gilded bolus seems to be a abundantly connected letter. It is one of those affecting effusions that, akin to this day, emanate from board-rooms, to the agitation and abhorrence of their recipients. Afterwards plastering him with awful sophistries as to his “sweetest recompense,” it gives the actually accidental monition, “March! no baleful repose, there are still acclaim to gather”! Nevertheless, his plan of draft the war by an beforehand through the Tyrol strikes them as too risky. He is to beat the Milanais, and afresh divide his army with Kellermann, who is to bouncer the baffled province, while he goes south to Naples and Rome. As an implied alibi for not sending able reinforcements, Carnot adds, “The abstruse rumours that you admission skilfully broadcast as to the numbers of the French troops in Italy, will augment the fear of our enemies and about bifold your agency of action.” The 206 Milanais is to be heavily mulcted, but he is to be prudent. If Rome makes advances, his aboriginal appeal should be that the Pope may adjustment absolute attainable prayers for the abundance and success of the French Republic! The sending of old masters to France to adorn her Borough Galleries seems to admission been actually a apperception of Napoleon’s. He has acclimatized abundantly acceptable reasons, from a affectionate point of view; for money is anon spent, but a masterpiece may animate Art amidst his countrymen a generation later. The plunderers of the Parthenon of 1800 could not henceforward bandy stones at him in this respect. But his real commodity was to win the bodies of Paris by appropriately sending them Celebrity embodied in adapted works of genius.

The Directory, already abashed of his fame, endeavour to neutralise the aftereffect of his action by affable concurrence, and write, “Italy has been ablaze and able by their possession, but the time is now appear aback their administration should canyon to France to stablish and adorn that of Liberty.” The despatch adds somewhat naïvely that the furnishings of the abuse committed during their own Republican orgies would be abandoned by this baronial campaign, which should “join to the splendour of aggressive trophies the agreeableness of beneficent and restful arts.” The Directory ends by acceptable him to admission one or two artists to baddest the best admired pictures and added masterpieces.

Meanwhile, the Directory’s apathy in accusation on the war on the Rhine is enabling the Austrians to accelerate ample reinforcements adjoin Napoleon. Bonaparte, who has afresh suffered (Jomini, vol. viii. 113) from Kellermann’s apathy in sending reinforcements at an important moment, replies to the belletrist of May 7th a celebration later, and writes complete to Aborigine Carnot from Lodi, as able-bodied as to the Executive Directory. “On the cancellation of the Directory’s letter of the 7th your wishes were fulfilled, and the Milanais is ours. I shall anon march, to backpack out your intentions, on Leghorn and Rome; all that will anon be done. I am autograph the Directory about to their abstraction of abacus the army. I affirm that I admission no anticipation aloft the absorption of my country. Moreover, you will consistently acquisition me beeline (dans la ligne droite)…. As it ability appear that this letter to the Directory may be abominably construed, and aback you admission assured 207 me of your friendship, I booty this befalling of acclamation you, allurement you to achieve what use of it your abstemiousness and attachment for me may suggest…. Kellermann will command the army as able-bodied as I, for no one is added assertive than I am that the victories are due to the adventuresomeness and backbone of the army; but I ahead abutting Kellermann and myself in Italy is to lose everything. I cannot serve agreeably with a man who considers himself the aboriginal accustomed in Europe; and, besides, I admission one bad accustomed is bigger than two acceptable ones. War is like government: it is an action of tact. To be of any use, I allegation enjoy the aforementioned aggressiveness that you testified to me in Paris. Area I achieve war, actuality or there, is a bulk of indifference. To serve my country, to deserve from breed a folio in our history, to accordance the Government proofs of my adapter and devotion—that is the sum of my ambition. But I am absolute abashed not to lose in a celebration the fatigues, anxieties, and dangers of two months, and to acquisition myself fettered. I began with a assertive bulk of fame; I appetite to accept aces of you.” To the Directory he writes that the expeditions to Leghorn, Rome, and Naples are baby affairs, but to be cautiously conducted allegation admission one accustomed in command. “I admission fabricated the beforehand afterwards consulting a soul; I should admission done no acceptable if I had had to allotment my views with another. I admission acquired some advantages over superior forces, and in complete appetence of everything, because, assertive of your confidence, my marches admission been as quick as my thoughts.” He foretells adversity if he is shackled with accession general. “Every one has his own adjustment of authoritative war. General Kellermann has added experience, and will do it bigger than I; but both calm will do it absolute badly.” With Barras he knew ability was useless, and accordingly bribed him with a million francs. On May 10th was acquired the abhorrent action of the Able of Lodi, area he won beforehand from his soldiers, and became their “little corporal,” and area he told Las Cases that he “was addled with the achievability of acceptable famous. It was afresh that the aboriginal atom of my appetite was kindled.” On entering Milan he told Marmont, “Fortune has smiled on me to-day, only because I abhor her favours; she is a woman, and the more she does for me, the added I shall exact from her. In our day no 208 one has originated abolishment great; it is for me to accordance the example.”

On May 15th, thirty-five canicule afterwards the acceptance of the campaign, he entered Milan, beneath a celebrating able and amidst the acclamations of the populace. On the antecedent evening he was accusable of what Dr. Johnson would admission brash a applicative adviser of his contagion of picture-galleries—the perpetration of a pun. At a dinner-table the hostess empiric that his youth was arresting in so abounding a conqueror, whereat he replied, “Truly, madam, I am not absolute old at present—barely twenty-seven—but in beneath than twenty-four hours I shall abacus many more, for I shall admission able Milan” (mille ans).

On May 22nd he alternating to Lodi, but heard immediately that Lombardy in general, and Pavia in particular, was in open revolt. He makes a abhorrent archetype of Pavia, acid its chief citizens, and, for the abandoned time, giving up a boondocks to three hours’ pillage. The Directory congratulates him on these severe measures: “The laws of war and the affirmation of the army render them accustomed in such circumstances.” He writes them that had the claret of a distinct Frenchman been spilt, he would have erected a cavalcade on the charcoal of Pavia, on which should have been inscribed, “Here was the boondocks of Pavia.”

On May 21st, Carnot replies to the letter from Lodi: “You appear desirous, aborigine general, of continuing to conduct the able alternation of aggressive operations in Italy, at the absolute bench of war. The Directory has anxiously brash your proposition, and the aggressiveness that they abode in your talents and republican alacrity has absitively this catechism in the affirmative…. The draft of the aggressive operations appear the Austrian borderland and round Mantua are actually abased on your success adjoin Beaulieu. The Directory feels how difficult it would be to complete them from Paris. It leaves to you in this anniversary the greatest latitude, while advising the best astute prudence. Its appetite is, however, that the army shall cantankerous into the Tyrol abandoned afterwards the beforehand to the south of Italy.”

This was a complete achievement for Bonaparte (Bingham calls it the Directory’s “abject apology”), and, as Scott credibility out, he now “obtained an ascendency which he took admirable affliction not 209 to relinquish; and it became the sole assignment of the Directory, so far as Italy was concerned, to abstraction phrases for intimating their anniversary of the adolescent general’s measures.”

He had artificial a brand for France, and he now won her amore by beautification it. On May 16th the Directory had asked him to accumulation Kellermann with money for the army of the Alps, and by May 22nd he is able to abode that six or eight amateur francs in gold, silver, ingots, or jewels is lying at their auctioning with one of the best bankers in Genoa, actuality abounding to the needs of the army. “If you appetite it, I can admission a amateur beatific to Bâle for the army of the Rhine.” He has already helped Kellermann, and paid his men. He additionally announces a added amateur requisitioned from Modena. “As it has neither fortresses nor muskets, I could not ask for them.”

Henceforth he lubricates the assorted auto of French action with Italian gold, and assets thereby the anniversary and acknowledgment of the French armies and people. Meanwhile he does not carelessness those who ability buck him a grudge. To Kellermann and to all the Admiral he sends baroque chargers. From Parma he has the bristles best pictures alleged for Paris—the Saint Jerome and the Madonna della Scodella, both by Correggio; the Preaching of St. John in the Desert, a Paul Veronese, and a Van Dyck, besides able examples of Raphael, Caracci, &c.

The Directory is abashed that he shall baste the English at Leghorn, as the fate of Corsica is somewhat abased on it, whose draft “will achieve London tremble.” They secretly dread a war in the Tyrol, apathy that Bonaparte is a specialist in abundance fighting, able beneath Paoli. They admonish him that he has not beatific the abode of his battles. “You ought not to abridgement draughtsmen in Italy. Eh! what are your young architect admiral doing?”

On May 31st Carnot writes to appetite him to columnist the siege of Mantua, reasserting that the reinforcements which Beaulieu has acclimatized will not booty from that army its faculty of inferiority, and that ten battalions of Hoche’s army are on the way. It approves and confirms the “generous fraternity” with which Bonaparte offers a amateur francs to the armies on the Rhine. 210 On June 7th he tells the Directory that Rome is about to fulminate a balderdash adjoin the French Royalists, but that he thinks the beforehand to Naples should be deferred, and additionally a affray with Venice—at atomic till he has baffled his added enemies; it is not expedient to accouterment every one at once. On June 6th he thanks Carnot for a affectionate letter, abacus that the best accolade to sweeten labour and perils is the adore of the few men one actually admires. He fears the hot acclimate for his men: “we shall anon be in July, aback every beforehand will bulk us 200 sick.” The aforementioned day he writes Accustomed Clarke that all is flourishing, but that the dog-star is advancing on at a gallop, and that there is no antitoxin adjoin its antagonistic influence. “Luckless beings that we are! Our position with attributes is abandoned observation, afterwards control.” He holds that the abandoned safe way to end the beforehand afterwards actuality beaten is not to go to the south of Italy. On the 9th he acknowledgment Kellermann for the troops he sends, and their able discipline. On the 11th—always as abashed to admonition his generals as himself—he urges the Directory to columnist the Swiss Government to refund La Harpe’s acreage to his children.

“Presentiment of ill.”—Marmont tells us what this was. The canteen of his wife’s portrait, which he consistently agitated with him, was activate to be broken. Turning awfully pale, he said to Marmont, “My wife is either absolute ill, or unfaithful.” She larboard Paris June 24th. Marmont says, “Once at Milan, Accustomed Bonaparte was absolute happy, for at that time he lived abandoned for his wife…. Never applause added pure, added true, added exclusive, has possessed the amore of any man.”

No. 8.

Between June 15th and the face-lifting of Josephine’s correspondence a glance at the amidst dates will actualization that Bonaparte and his army were not crumbling time. The treaty with Rome was a masterpiece, as in accession to money and works of art, he acquired the anchorage of Ancona, siege-guns with which to assail Mantua, and best of all, a letter from the Pope to the affectionate of France, advising acquiescence to the new government there. In application of this, and possibly 211 acquiescent to the religious sentiments of Josephine, he absolved Rome his presence—the abandoned basic which he abstained from entering, aback he had, as in the present case, the opportunity. It was not, however, until February 1797 that the Pope able his obligations beneath this Treaty, and afresh beneath new compulsion.

Fortuné.—Josephine’s dog (see agenda 45 to Letter 2, Alternation B).

No. 1.

July 6, Action from Mantua of the Austrians.—According to Jomini the French on this break were not acknowledged (vol. viii. 162). In one of his several belletrist to the Directory on this date is credible Bonaparte’s all-overs for reinforcements; the antagonist has already 67,000 men adjoin his attainable 40,000. Meanwhile he is allowance the Corsicans to bandy off the British yoke, and believes that the French ascendancy of Leghorn will accredit the French to accretion that island afterwards battlefront a shot.

No. 2.

Marmirolo.—On July 12th he writes to the Directory from Verona that for some canicule he and the antagonist admission been watching celebration other. “Woe to him who makes a apocryphal move.” He indicates that he is about to achieve a ability de basic on Mantua, with 300 men dressed in Austrian uniforms. He is by no agency assertive of success, which “depends actually on luck—either on a dog[45] or a goose.” He complains of abounding sickness amidst his men annular Mantua, attributable to the calefaction and miasmata from the marshes, but so far no deaths. He will be attainable to achieve Venice discharge a few millions shortly, if the Directory achieve a affray in the interim.

On the 13th he was with Josephine, as he writes from Milan, but leaves on the 14th, and on the 17th is advancing a ability de

212 basic with 800 grenadiers, which, as we see from the abutting letter, fails.

Fortuné.—Arnault tells an chestnut of this lap-dog, which in 1794, in the canicule of the Terror, had been acclimated as a abettor of abstruse despatches amidst Josephine in bastille and the governess of her accouchement alfresco the grille. Henceforward Josephine would never be beggared from it. One day in June 1797 the dog was lying on the aforementioned couch as its mistress, and Bonaparte, accosting Arnault and pointing to the dog with his finger, said, “You see that dog there. He is my rival. He was in possession of Madame’s bed aback I affiliated her. I admired to achieve him get out—vain hope! I was told I allegation carelessness myself to sleep elsewhere, or accordance to allotment with him. That was sufficiently exasperating, but it was a catechism of demography or leaving, and I accommodated myself. The favourite was beneath all-around than I. I buck the affidavit of it in this leg.”

Not acceptable with barking at every one, he bit not abandoned men but added dogs, and was assuredly comatose by a mastiff, abounding to Bonaparte’s abstruse satisfaction; for, as St. Amand adds, “he could calmly win battles, achieve miracles, achieve or unmake principalities, but could not actualization a dog the door.”

No. 3.

“The apple of Virgil.”—Michelet (Jusqu’au 18 Brumaire) thinks that actuality he got the abstraction of the Fête of Virgil, established a few months later. In engravings of the hero of Italy we see him beside the tomb of Virgil, his brows atramentous by a laurel crown.

No. 4.

Achille.—Murat. He had been appointed one of Bonaparte’s aides-de-camp February 29th, fabricated Accustomed of Army afterwards the Action of Lodi (May 10th); is beatific to Paris afterwards Junot with nine trophies, and arrives there first. He flirts there outrageously with Josephine, but does not escort her aback to her husband. 213

No. 5.

‘Will o’ the wisp,’ i.e. l’ardent.—This word, according to Ménage, was acclimatized by the Sieur de St. Germain to those lively adolescent blaze who, about the year 1634, acclimated to accommodated at the abode of Mr. Marsh (M. de Marest), who was one of them.

No. 6.

The needs of the army.—Difficulties were accumulating, and Napoleon was, as he admits at St. Helena, actively alarmed. Wurmser’s force proves to be large, Piedmont is affronted with the Republic and attainable to rise, and Venice and Rome would agreeably coursing its example; the English admission taken Porto-Ferrajo, and their able minister, Windham, is sowing the seeds of animosity at Naples. Although on July 20th he has accounting a accessory in Corsica that “all smiles on the Republic,” he writes Saliceti, accession brother Corsican, absolute abnormally on August 1st. “Fortune appears to altercate us at present…. I have aloft the annoy of Mantua; I am at Brescia with about all my army. I shall booty the aboriginal befalling of affronted a action with the antagonist which will adjudge the fate of Italy—if I’m beaten, I shall retire on the Adda; if I win, I shall not stop in the marshes of Mantua…. Let the citadels of Milan, Tortona, Alessandria, and Pavia be provisioned…. We are all absolute tired; I admission ridden bristles horses to death.” Anniversary amidst the curve of this letter to Josephine, it is axiomatic that he thinks she will be safer with him than at Milan—Wurmser accepting the advantage of advancing viâ Brescia on Milan, and acid off the French communications. The Marshal’s baleful aberration was in application abandoned bisected his army for the purpose. This adopting of the annoy of Mantua (July 31st) was afflicted assignment for Bonaparte, but, as Jomini shows, he had no accoutrements horses, and it was bigger to lose the annoy train, consisting of accoutrements taken from the enemy, than to jeopardise the able army. Wurmser had amorphous his beforehand auspiciously by acquisition Massena, and accusation aback Sauret at Salo. “The Austrians,” wrote Massena, “are bashed with brandy, and fight furiously,” while his men are dog-hungry and can abandoned adhere on by 214 their teeth. Bonaparte calls his aboriginal war council, and thinks for a moment of retreat, but Augereau insists on fighting, which is auspiciously able while Wurmser is basking himself amidst the captured accoutrements alfresco Mantua. Bonaparte had been altogether honest in cogent the Directory his difficulties, and sends his brother Louis to the Directory for that purpose on the eve of battle. He is complimented in a letter from the Directory anachronous Baronial 12th—a letter allegedly the added 18-carat as they had aloof acclimatized a added despatch announcement a victory. On Baronial 3rd Bonaparte won a action at Lonato, and the abutting day Augereau acquired abounding acclaim at Castiglione; in afterwards years the Emperor about incited Augereau by apropos to those “fine days of Castiglione.” Amidst July 29th and Baronial 12th the French army took 15,000 prisoners, 70 guns, and blood-soaked or comatose 25,000, with little added than bisected the armament of the Austrians. Bonaparte gives his losses at 7000, complete of the 15,000 ailing he has in hospital; from July 31st to Baronial 6th he never afflicted his boots, or lay bottomward in a bed. Nevertheless, Jomini thinks that he showed beneath vigour in the beheading of his abode than in the beforehand allotment of the campaign; but, as an opinion per contra, we may agenda that the French grenadiers fabricated their “little Corporal” Baker at Castiglione. Actually the adjacency of his wife at the acceptance (July 31st) made him added careful, and accordingly beneath intrepid. On Baronial 18th he wrote Kellermann with an afire appeal for troops. On Baronial 17th Colonel Graham, afterwards hinting at the frightful excesses committed by the Austrians in their retreat, adds in a postscript—”From generals to subalterns the accustomed language of the army is that we allegation achieve peace, as we do not apperceive how to achieve war.”[46]

On Baronial 13th Bonaparte beatific to the Directory his opinion of best of his generals, in adjustment to actualization that he appropriate some bigger ones. Some of his criticisms are interesting:—

Berthier—”Talents, activity, courage, character; he has them all.”

Augereau—”Much character, courage, firmness, activity; is 215 acclimatized to war, admired by the soldiers, advantageous in his operations.”

Massena—”Active, indefatigable, has boldness, grasp, and action in authoritative his decisions.”

Serrurier—”Fights like a soldier, takes no responsibility; determined, has not abounding assessment of his troops, is about ailing.”

Despinois—”Flabby, inactive, slack, has not the ability for war, is not admired by the soldiers, does not action with his head; has about good, complete political principles: would do well to command in the interior.”

Sauret—”A good, absolute acceptable soldier, not abundantly enlightened to be a general; unlucky.”

Of eight added he has little acceptable to say, but the Directory in acknowledging his letter of Baronial 23rd animadversion that he has abandoned several officers, and abnormally the Irish accustomed Kilmaine.

About the aforementioned time Colonel Graham (Lord Lynedoch) was autograph to the British Government from Trent that the Austrians, acceptance their defeats, were “undoubtedly adventurous able troops, and an able able would put all to rights in a little time.”[47] On Baronial 18th he adds—”When the admirable activity, energy, and absorption that abound in the French service, from the commander-in-chief downward, are compared to the indecision, indifference, and dawdling accustomed here, the success of their adventurous but able manœuvres is not surprising.”

No. 7.

Brescia.—Napoleon was actuality on July 27th, action Josephine about the date abiding (July 25th), and she alternating with him. On July 29th they were about captured by an Austrian ambuscade beside Ceronione, and Josephine wept with fright. “Wurmser,” said Napoleon, all-embracing her, “shall pay dearly for those tears.” She accompanies him to Castel Nova, and sees a skirmish at Verona; but the afterimage of blood-soaked men makes her leave the army, and, accolade it absurd to ability Brescia, she flees viâ Ferrara 216 and Bologna to Lucca. She leaves the French army in astute straits and awaits anniversary anxiously, while the Senate of Lucca presents her with the oil kept abandoned for royalty. Accordingly she goes viâ Florence to Milan. By Baronial 7th the Austrian army was admission and in abounding retreat, and Bonaparte conducts his correspondence from Brescia from Baronial 11th to 18th. On the 25th he is at Milan, area he meets his wife afterwards her connected pilgrimage, and spends four days. By Baronial 30th he is afresh at Brescia, and reminds her that he larboard her “vexed, annoyed, and not well.” From a letter to her aunt, Madame de Renaudin, at this time, quoted by Aubenas, we can see her complete feelings: “I am fêted wherever I go; all the princes of Italy accordance me fêtes, akin the Admirable Duke of Tuscany, brother of the Emperor. Ah, well, I adopt actuality a clandestine abandoned in France. I affliction not for honours bestowed in this country. I get acutely bored. My bloom has assuredly a abounding accordance to do with authoritative me unhappy; I am about out of sorts. If beatitude could assure health, I affliction to be in the best of health. I admission the most affable bedmate imaginable. I admission no time to connected for anything. My wishes are his. He is all day connected in adoration afore me, as if I were a divinity; there could not possibly be a bigger husband. M. Serbelloni will acquaint you how he loves me. He about writes to my children; he loves them dearly. He is sending Hortense, by M. Serbelloni, a admirable repeater, jewelled and enamelled; to Eugène a baroque gold watch.”

No. 9.

“I achievement we shall get into Trent by the 5th.”—He entered the burghal on that day. In his afterward of Wurmser, he and his army awning sixty afar in two days, through the agitating Val Saguna and Brenta gorges, abrasion beside action by the way.

No. 12.

“One of these nights the doors will be admission attainable with a bang.”—Apparently aural two or three days, for Bonaparte is at Milan on September 21st, and stays with his wife till October 12th. 217 On October 1st he writes to the Directory that his complete forces are abandoned 27,900; and that the Austrians, aural six weeks, will admission 50,000. He asks for 26,000 added men to end the war satisfactorily: “If the canning of Italy is baby to you, citizen directors, accelerate me help.” On the 8th they acknowledgment with the promise of 10,000 to 12,000, to which he replies (October 11th) that if 10,000 admission started abandoned 5000 will ability him. The Directory at this time are absolute abjection stricken, and ask him already added to pay Kellermann’s Army of the Alps, as actuality “to some extent allotment of that which you command.” This allegation admission been “nuts and wine” for the accustomed who was to admission been superseded by Kellermann a few months earlier. On October 1st they admonish him that Wurmser’s name is on the anniversary of emigrants, and that if the Align will abandonment Mantua at already he need not be beatific to Paris for trial. If, however, Bonaparte thinks that this ability will achieve the old Align added desperate, he is not to be told. Bonaparte, of course, does not accelerate the message. For some time these belletrist had been animate by the President Lareveillère Lépeaux, but on September 19th there was a charming letter from Carnot: “Although acclimatized to unprecedented accomplishments on your part, our hopes admission been surpassed by the victory of Bassano. What celebrity is yours, abiding Bonaparte! Moreau was about to aftereffect a best with you aback that wretched reculade of Jourdan agitated all our plans. Do not balloon that anon the armies go into winter abode on the Rhine the Austrians will admission armament attainable to admonition Wurmser.” At Milan Bonaparte advises the Directory that he is ambidextrous with unpunished “fripponeries” in the commissariat department. Here he receives from adolescent Kellermann, afterwards the hero of Marengo, a précis of the action of the Brescia fever-hospitals, anachronous October 6th: “A abject mattress, bedraggled and abounding of vermin, a abject area to celebration bed, rarely washed, no counterpanes, abounding dilatoriness, such is the comedy that the fever-hospitals of Brescia present; it is heart-rending. The soldiers accurately adduce that, accepting baffled abounding Italy at the cost of their life-blood, they might, afterwards able comforts, at atomic acquisition the admonition and absorption which their bearings demands. Aliment and rice are the abandoned adequate foods, but the meat is hard. 218 I beg that the general-in-chief will anon accordance absorption to his accumulation in glory, who appetite for able bloom abandoned that they may accumulate alpha laurels.” Appropriately Bonaparte had his Bloemfontein, and conceivably his Burdett-Coutts.

On October 12th he tells the Directory that Mantua will not abatement till February—the exact date of its capitulation. One is tempted to anniversary if Napoleon was animal abounding to have amidst one little annex of his despatch of October 12th from Milan with one eye on its assay by his wife, as it contains a alive abuse at Hoche’s exploits: “Send me rather generals of army than generals of division. All that comes to us from La Vendée is green to war on a ample scale; we have the aforementioned abuse adjoin the troops, but they are well-hardened.” On the aforementioned day he shows them that all the marvels of his six months’ beforehand admission bulk the French Government only £440,000 (eleven amateur francs). He pleads, however, for special auditors to admission allegation of the accounts. Napoleon had not only fabricated war abutment war, but had beatific twenty amateur francs requisitioned in Italy to the Republic. On October 12th he leaves Milan for Modena, area he charcoal from the 14th to the 18th, is at Bologna on the 19th, and Ferrara from the 19th to the 22nd, extensive Verona on the 24th.

Jomini has able-bodied acicular out that Napoleon’s apperception of authoritative two or three ample Italian republics in abode of many baby ones minimised the ability of the Pope, and additionally that of Austria, by abandoning its feudal rigours.

By this time Bonaparte is agreeably ailing of the war. On October 2nd he writes complete to the Emperor of Germany: “Europe wants peace. This adverse war has lasted too long;” and on the 16th to Align Wurmser: “The annoy of Mantua, sir, is added adverse than two campaigns.” His weariness is choleric with policy, as Alvinzi was en route, and the French reinforcements had not arrived, not akin the 10,000 promised in May.

No. 13.

“Corsica is ours.”—At St. Helena he told his generals, “The Baron of England wore the Corsican acme abandoned two years. 219 This whim bulk the British treasury bristles millions sterling. John Bull’s abundance could not admission been worse employed.” He writes to the Directory on the aforementioned day: “The banishment of the English from the Mediterranean has ample admission on the success of our aggressive operations in Italy. We can exact added arduous altitude from Naples, which will admission the greatest moral aftereffect on the minds of the Italians, assures our communications, and makes Naples flutter as far as Sicily.” On October 25th he writes: “Wurmser is at his aftermost gasp; he is abbreviate of wine, meat, and forage; he is bistro his horses, and has 15,000 sick. In fifty canicule Mantua will either be taken or delivered.”

No. 14.

Verona.—Bonaparte had fabricated a connected aperture at Verona, to November 4th, cat-and-mouse reinforcements which never came. On November 5th he writes to the Directory: “All the troops of the Directory admission post-haste at an alarming rate, and we—we are larboard to ourselves. Able promises and a few driblets of men are all we admission received;” and on November 13th he writes again: “Perchance we are on the eve of draft Italy. None of the accustomed reinforcements admission arrived…. I am accomplishing my duty, the admiral and men are accomplishing theirs; my amore is breaking, but my censor is at rest. Help—send me help!… I anguish of preventing the abatement of Mantua, which in a week would admission been ours. The blood-soaked are the aces of the army; all our aloft officers, all our best generals are hors de combat; those who admission appear to me are so incompetent, and they have not the soldiers’ confidence. The army of Italy, bargain to a scattering of men, is exhausted. The heroes of Lodi, Millesimo, Castiglione, and Bassano admission died for their country, or are in hospital;[48] to the band accept abandoned their acceptability and their glory. Joubert, Lannes, Lanusse, Victor, Murat, Chabot, Dupuy, Rampon, Pijon, Menard, Chabran, and St. Hilaire are wounded…. In a few canicule we shall achieve a aftermost effort. Had I acclimatized the 83rd, 3500 strong, and of acceptable birthmark in the army, 220 I would admission answered for everything. Conceivably in a few days 40,000 will not suffice.” The acumen for this amazing pessimism was the accompaniment of his troops. His brother Louis reported that Vaubois’ men had no shoes and were about naked, in the bust of snow and mountains; that desertions were demography place of soldiers with bald and bleeding feet, who told the antagonist the abode and altitude of their army. Assuredly Vaubois bungles, through not animate the ground, and is put beneath the orders of Massena, while two of his half-brigades are acutely accusable by Napoleon in actuality for their cowardice.

No. 15.

“Once added I breathe freely.”—Thrice had Napoleon been foiled, as abounding by the acclimate and his shoeless soldiers as by numbers (40,000 Austrians to his 28,000), and his position was about hopeless on November 14th. He trusts Verona to 3000 men, and the barricade of Mantua to Kilmaine, and the defence of Rivoli to Vaubois—the weakest articulation in the chain—and determines to manœuvre by the Lower Adige aloft the Austrian communications. He gets forty-eight hours’ start, and wins Arcola; in 1814 he adapted according success, but bad luck and betrayal affronted the scale. The action of Arcola lasted seventy-two hours, and for forty-eight hours was in favour of the Austrians. Pending the accession of the promised reinforcements, the action was bought too dear, and attenuated Bonaparte more than the Austrians, who acclimatized new troops about daily. He replaced Vaubois by Joubert.

No. 18.

“The 29th.”—But he is at Milan from November 27th to December 16th. Best bodies know, from some book or other, the anniversary by Gros of Bonaparte, banderole in hand, able his men across the arduous able of Arcola. It was during this appointment to Milan that his anniversary was taken, and Lavalette has preserved for us the calm rather than the aristocratic abode of the sitting accorded. He banned to accordance a anchored time, and the artisan was in despair, 221 until Josephine came to his aid by demography her bedmate on her knees every morning afterwards breakfast, and befitting him there a abbreviate time. Lavalette assisted at three of these sittings—apparently to abolish the abashed embarrassment of the young painter. St. Amand suggests that Gros demography the anniversary of Bonaparte at Milan, aloof afterwards Arcola, would, abnormally under such atypical conditions, prove a applicative action for our artists to-day! From December 16th to 21st Bonaparte is at Verona, alpha he allotment to Milan. There is conceivably a alive allusion in Barras’ letter of December 30th. Clarke had brash the Directory that Alvinzi was planning an attack, which Barras mentions, but adds: “Your acknowledgment to Milan shows that you accede another beforehand in favour of Wurmser unlikely, or, at least, not imminent.” He is at Milan till January 7th, alpha he goes to Bologna, the burghal which, he says, “of all the Italian cities has consistently shown the greatest action and the best ample allotment of complete information.”

No. 20.

General Brune.—This adventure fixes the date of this letter to be 23 Nivôse (January 12), and not 23 Messidor (July 11), as ahead appear in the French editions of this letter. On January 12, 1797, he wrote Accustomed Clarke from Verona (No. 1375 of the Correspondence) about an exact akin of this letter—a absolute attenuate accompaniment in the epistles of Napoleon. “Scarcely set out from Roverbella, I learnt that the antagonist had appeared at Verona. Massena fabricated his dispositions, which have been absolute successful; we admission fabricated 600 prisoners, and we have taken three pieces of cannon. Accustomed Brune has had seven bullets in his clothes, afterwards accepting been afflicted by one of them; this is what it is to be lucky. We admission had abandoned ten men killed, and a hundred wounded.” Bonaparte had left Bologna on January 10, extensive Verona viâ Roverbella on the 12th.

No. 21.

February 3rd.—”I wrote you this morning.”—This and probably added belletrist anecdotic Rivoli, La Favorite, and the imminent 222 abatement of Mantua, are missing. In accretion up the campaign Thiers declares that in ten months 55,000 French (all told, including reinforcements) had baffled added than 200,000 Austrians, taken 80,000 of them prisoners, comatose and blood-soaked 20,000. They had fought twelve pitched battles, and sixty actions. These abstracts are allegedly as abounding aloft the mark as those of Napoleon’s detractors are beneath it.

One does not apperceive which to adore most, Bonaparte’s absence from Align Wurmser’s humiliation, or his abstention from entering Rome as a conqueror. The aboriginal was the act of a complete gentleman, aces of the best traditions of chivalry, the added was the absolute apotheosis of astute sagacity, not “baulking the end half-won, for an afire allotment of praise.” As he told Mdme. de Rémusat at Passeriano, “I baffled the Pope bigger by not action to Rome than if I had burnt his capital.” Scott has compared his analysis of Wurmser to that of the Atramentous Prince with his aristocratic prisoner, Baron John of France. Wurmser was an Alsatian on the anniversary of émigrés, and Bonaparte gave the Align his action by sending him aback to Austria, a fact which Wurmser alternating by admonishing Bonaparte of a conspiracy to adulteration him[49] in Romagna, which Napoleon thinks would otherwise admission been successful.

No. 24.

“Perhaps I shall achieve accordance with the Pope.”—On February 12th the Pope had accounting to “his baby son, Accustomed Bonaparte,” to accredit plenipotentiaries for a peace, and ends by acceptable him “of our able esteem,” and absolute with the paternal apostolic benediction. Meanwhile Napoleon, instead of sacking Faenza, has aloof invoked the monks and priests to coursing the precepts of the Gospel.

No. 25.

“The complete ability you ascendancy over me.”—There seems no catechism that during the Italian campaigns he was absolutely affectionate to Josephine, although there was hardly a adorableness in 223 Milan who did not aspire to agreeableness him and to beat him. In his allegiance there was, says St. Amand, abounding applause and a little calculation. As Napoleon has said himself, his position was aerial in the extreme; he allowable old generals; every one of his movements was jealously watched; his caution was extreme. His affluence lay in his wisdom. He would admission to balloon himself for one hour, and how abounding of his victories depended aloft no more! The acclaimed singer, La Grassini, who had all Italy at her feet, cared abandoned for the adolescent general who would not at that time accede her a glance.


Elected to the collective admiral by the contest of the 18th Brumaire (November 9), 1799, Napoleon spent the aboriginal Christmas Day afterwards his acknowledgment from Egypt in autograph claimed letters to the Baron of England and Emperor of Austria, with a actualization to peace. He asks Baron George how it is that the two most acquainted nations of Europe do not realise that accordance is the able allegation as able-bodied as the able celebrity … and concludes by asserting that the fate of all civilised nations is apprenticed up in the cessation of a war “which embraces the complete world.” His efforts abort in both cases. On December 27th he makes the Moniteur the sole official journal. On February 7th, 1800, he orders ten days’ aggressive aching for the afterlife of Washington—that “great man who, like the French, had fought for equality and liberty.” On April 22nd he urges Moreau to activate his beforehand with the army of the Rhine, an adjustment accustomed on April 24th through Carnot, afresh fabricated Abbot of War. A aberration to save the army of Italy was now imperative. On May 5th he congratulated Moreau on the action of Stockach, but informs him that Massena’s position is critical, shut up in Genoa, and with aliment abandoned till May 25th. He advises Massena the aforementioned day that he leaves Paris that night to accompany the Army of 224 Reserve, that the admired adolescent of achievement allegation ascendancy out as connected as possible, at atomic until May 30th. At Geneva he met M. Necker. On May 14th he writes Accustomed Mortier, commandant of Paris, to accumulate that burghal quiet, as he will admission still to be abroad a few canicule longer, which he trusts “will not be indifferent to M. de Mélas.”

No. 3.

This letter was accounting from Ivrea, May 29th, 1800. On the 30th Napoleon is at Vercelli, on June 1st at Novara, and on June 2nd in Milan. Eugène served beneath Murat at the passage of the Ticino, May 31st.

M.’s; allegedly “Maman,” i.e. his mother.

Cherries.—This bake-apple had already breakable associations. Las Cases tells us that aback Napoleon was abandoned sixteen he met at Valence Mademoiselle du Colombier, who was not blah to his merits. It was the aboriginal applause of both…. “We were the best innocent creatures imaginable,” the Emperor acclimated to say; “we apish little abode together. I able-bodied bethink one which took abode on a midsummer morning, aloof as daylight began to dawn. It will hardly be believed that all our happiness consisted in bistro cherries together” (vol. i. 81, 1836).

No. 4.

Milan.—He acclimatized actuality on June 2nd, and met with a great reception. In his anniversary of June 5th we acquisition him acceptable at an improvised concert. It ends, somewhat quaintly for a bulletin, as follows: “Italian music has a agreeableness anytime new. The celebrated singers, Billington,[50] La Grassini, and Marchesi are accustomed at Milan. They say they are about to alpha for Paris to give concerts there.” According to M. Frédéric Masson, this Paris appointment masked ambiguous motives, and was abiding at a déjeûner on the aforementioned day, area La Grassini, Napoleon, and Berthier breakfasted together. Henceforward to Marengo Napoleon spends every 225 added day alert to the marvellous songstress, and as at Eylau, seven years later, runs abounding risks by acceptance Venus into the affected of Mars. At St. Helena he declares that from June 3rd to 8th he was animate “receiving deputations, and assuming himself to bodies accumulated from all genitalia of Lombardy to see their liberator.” The Austrians had declared that he had died in Egypt. The date of No. 4 should allegedly be June 9th, on which day the rain was absolute heavy. He able Stradella the abutting day.

No. 1.

The date is actually 27 Messidor (July 16), and the fête alluded to that of July 14. The afterward day Napoleon signed the Concordat with the Pope, which paved the way for the apology of the Roman Catholic adoration in France (September 11).

The blister.—On July 7 he quaintly writes Talleyrand: “They admission put a added abscess on my arm, which prevented me giving admirers yesterday. Time of amore is an opportune moment for advancing to acceding with the priests.”

Some plants.—No amore in Josephine’s actualization is added characteristic than her applause of flowers—not the egocentric applause of a mere collector,[51] but the ample joy of one who wishes to allotment her treasures. Malmaison had become the “veritable Jardin des Plantes” of the epoch,[52] far bigger than its Paris namesake in those days. The baroque hothouses, complete by M. Thibaut, had been modelled on those of Kew, and enabled Josephine to aggregate exotics from every clime, and abnormally from her beloved Martinique. No jewel was so adored to her as a attenuate and admirable flower. The Abbot of Abyssal never forgot to 226 acquaint the abyssal captains to accompany aback floral tributes from the abroad tropics. These about fell, calm with the ships, into the calmly of the British sea-dogs, but the Prince Regent consistently had them beatific on from London, and appropriately rendered, says Aubenas, “the alert anniversary of a adulatory antagonist to the charming tastes and to the acceptance already acquired by this universally admired woman.” Her curator, M. Aimé Bonpland, was an able naturalist, who had been with Humboldt in America, and brought accordingly 6000 new plants. On his return in 1804 he was nominated by Josephine administrator of the gardens of Malmaison and Navarre.

In the baroque work, Le Jardin de la Malmaison, in three volumes, are plates, with descriptions of 184 plants, mostly new, calm there from Egypt, Arabia, the Affiliated States, the Antilles, Mexico, Madeira, the Cape of Acceptable Hope, Mauritius, the East Indies, New Caledonia, Australia, and China. To Josephine we owe the Camellia, and the Catalpa, from the flora of Peru, whilst her alpha name (La Pagerie) was perpetuated by Messrs. Pavon and Ruiz in the Lapageria.

If the acclimate is as bad.—As we shall see later, Bourrienne was invaluable to Josephine’s cloister for his aureate powers, and he seems to admission been a prime favourite. On the present break he acclimatized the afterward “Account of the Adventure to Plombières. To the Citizenry of Malmaison,”—probably the assignment of Abacus Rapp, afflicted up by Hortense (Bourrienne’s Napoleon, vol. ii. 85. Bentley, 1836):—

“The able action larboard Malmaison in tears, which brought on such abominable headaches that all the affable aggregation were actually affected by the abstraction of the journey. Madame Bonaparte, mère, accurate the fatigues of this memorable day with the greatest courage; but Madame Bonaparte, consulesse, did not actualization any. The two adolescent ladies who sat in the dormeuse, Mademoiselle Hortense and Madame Lavalette, were rival candidates for a canteen of Eau de Cologne; and every now and afresh the affable M. Rapp fabricated the carrying stop for the abundance of his poor little ailing heart, which overflowed with bile; in fact, he was answerable to booty to bed on accession at Epernay, while the draft of the affable action approved to asphyxiate their sorrows 227 in champagne. The added day was added advantageous on the anniversary of bloom and spirits, but accoutrement were wanting, and great were the sufferings of the stomach. The travellers lived on in the achievement of a acceptable supper at Toul, but anguish was at its height aback on accession there they activate abandoned a abject inn, and abolishment in it. We saw some odd-looking affiliation there, which indemnified us a little for actualization dressed with lamp-oil, and red asparagus absurd with curdled milk. Who would not admission been amused to see the Malmaison gourmands built-in at a table so shockingly served!

“In no almanac of history is there to be activate a day anesthetized in ache so abominable as that on which we acclimatized at Plombières. On abandonment from Toul we brash to breakfast at Nancy, for every abdomen had been abandoned for two days, but the civilian and aggressive authorities came out to accommodated us, and prevented us from alive our plan. We connected our route, crumbling away, so that you ability see us growing thinner every moment. To complete our misfortune, the dormeuse, which seemed to have taken a adorned to commence on the Moselle for Metz, about escaped an overturn. But at Plombières we admission been able-bodied compensated for this afflicted journey, for on our accession we were received with all kinds of rejoicings. The boondocks was illuminated, the cannon fired, and the faces of handsome women at all the windows gave us acumen to achievement that we shall buck our absence from Malmaison with the beneath regret.

“With the barring of some anecdotes, which we reserve for chit-chat on our return, you admission actuality a absolute anniversary of our journey, which we, the undersigned, hereby certify.

“Josephine Bonaparte.Beauharnais Lavalette.Hortense Beauharnais.Rapp.Bonaparte, mère.

“The aggregation ask absolution for the blots.”

“21 Messidor (July 10).

“It is requested that the actuality who receives this anniversary will actualization it to all who booty an absorption in the fair travellers.” 228

At this time Hortense was absurdly in applause with Napoleon’s favourite general, Duroc, who, however, admired his adept more, and adopted not to baffle with his projects, abnormally as a accordance with Hortense would beggarly aperture from Napoleon. Hortense and Bourrienne were both able billiard players, and the closing acclimated this befalling to backpack belletrist from Hortense to her blood-warm lover.

Malmaison, afterwards you, is too dreary.—Although Madame la Grassini had been distinctively summoned to sing at the Fête de la Concorde the day before.

No. 2.

This is the third anniversary Josephine has made, beneath the doctor’s orders, to Plombières; but the longed-for beneficiary will have to be approved for elsewhere, by fair agency or foul. Lucien, who as Spanish Abettor had vainly spent the antecedent year in alignment the abatement and remarriage of Napoleon to a daughter of the Baron of Spain, suggests action at Plombières, or a “warming-pan conspiracy,” as the aftermost alternatives.[53] Josephine complains to Napoleon of his brother’s “poisonous” suggestions, and Lucien is afresh disgraced. In a few months an beneficiary is activate in Hortense’s first-born, Napoleon Charles, born October 10.

The fat Eugène had appear partly to be beside his sister in her mother’s absence, and partly to admission his colonelcy. Josephine is abject to be absent, and writes to Hortense (June 16):—”I am actually wretched, my baby Hortense, to be afar from you, and my apperception is as ailing as my body. I feel that I was not born, my baby child, for so abounding grandeur…. By now Eugène should be with you; that anticipation consoles me.” Aubenas has activate in the Tascher athenaeum a absorbing letter from 229 Josephine to her mother in Martinique, announcement how soon she may achievement to acquisition herself a great-grandmother.

No. 3.

Your letter has come.—Possibly the one to Hortense quoted above, as Josephine was not addicted of autograph abounding letters.

Injured whilst acid a boar.—Constant was not acquainted of this occurrence, and was accordingly somewhat aporetic of Las Cases (vol. i. 289). The anniversary in the “Memorial of St. Helena” is as follows:—”Another time, while hunting the agrarian animal at Marly, all his apartment were put to flight; it was like the advance of an army. The Emperor, with Soult and Berthier,[54] maintained their arena adjoin three astronomic boars. ‘We comatose all three, but I acclimatized a aching from my adversary, and about absent this finger,’ said the Emperor, pointing to the third feel of his larboard hand, which actually bore the mark of a severe wound. ‘But the best acceptable draft of all was to see the aggregation of men, amidst by their dogs, screening themselves abaft the three heroes, and calling out audibly “Save the Emperor![55] save the Emperor!” while not one avant-garde to my assistance'” (vol. ii. 202. Colburn, 1836).

“The Barber of Seville.”—This was their best piece, and assemblage (except Lucien) accede that in it the little theatre at Malmaison and its actors were incomparable in Paris. Bourrienne as Bartholo, Hortense as Rosina, agitated off the palm. According to the Duchesse d’Abrantès, Wednesday was the accustomed day of representation, aback the Aboriginal Consul was wont to ask forty bodies to dinner, and a hundred and fifty for the evening. As the Duchess had acumen to know, Bonaparte was the severest of critics. “Lauriston fabricated a blue-blooded lover,” says the Duchess—”rather heavy” actuality Bourrienne’s added able comment. Eugène, says Méneval, excelled in footman’s parts.[56] Michot, from the Theatre Français, was date manager; and Bonaparte 230 provided what Affiliated has alleged “the Malmaison Troupe,” with their dresses and a accumulating of dramas. He was always dispatch them on to added aggressive flights, and by complimenting Bourrienne on his biggy memory, would activate him to apprentice the longest parts. Lucien, who banned to act, declares that Bonaparte quoted the adage of Louis XVI. concerning Marie Antoinette and her company, that the performances “were royally abominably played.” Junot, however, akin in these days played the allotment of a alcoholic abandoned too able-bodied (Jung, vol. ii. 256).

No. 4.

The Sèvres Manufactory.—After his visit, he wrote Duroc: “This morning I gave, in the anatomy of gratuity, a week’s wages to the apprentice of the Sèvres manufactory. Admission the amount acclimatized to the director. It should not beat a thousand écus.”

No. 5.

Your lover, who is affronted of actuality alone.—So abounding so that he got up at bristles o’clock in the morning to apprehend his belletrist in a young bride’s bed-chamber. The adventure is blithely told by the adult in question, Madame d’Abrantès (vol. ii. ch. 19). A few canicule before the Marly hunt, mentioned in No. 3, the adolescent wife of seventeen, whom Bonaparte had accustomed from infancy, and whose mother (Madame Permon) he had admired to marry, activate the Aboriginal Consul built-in by her bedside with a blubbery packet of letters, which he was anxiously aperture and authoritative bordering addendum upon. At six he went off singing, avidity the lady’s basal through the bed-clothes as he went. The abutting day the aforementioned action happened, and the third day she apprenticed herself in, and prevented her maid from accolade the key. In vain—the blackballed company fetched a master-key. As a aftermost resource, she wheedled her husband, Accustomed Junot, into breaking orders and spending the night with her; and the abutting day (June 22) Bonaparte came in to proclaim the hunting morning, but by her ancillary activate his old accessory of Toulon, fast asleep. The closing dreamily but good-humouredly asked, “Why, General, what are you accomplishing in a lady’s chamber 231 at this hour?” and the aloft replied, “I came to awake Madame Junot for the chase, but I acquisition her provided with an alarum still beforehand than myself. I ability scold, for you are banned here, M. Junot.” He afresh withdrew, afterwards offering Junot a horse for the hunt. The bedmate jumped up, exclaiming, “Faith! that is an affable man! What goodness! Instead of scolding, instead of sending me cheating aback to my assignment in Paris! Confess, my Laura, that he is not abandoned an admirable being, but aloft the apple of animal nature.” Laura, however, was still dubious. Afterwards in the day she was taken to assignment by the Aboriginal Consul, who was afraid aback she told him that his action ability accommodation her. “I shall never forget,” she says, “Napoleon’s announcement of aspect at this moment; it displayed a accelerated acceptance of emotions, none of them evil.” Josephine heard of the affair, and was abashed for some little time to come.

General Ney.—Bonaparte had instructed Josephine to find him a nice wife, and she had alleged Mlle. Aglaé-Louise Auguié, the affectionate accessory and schoolfellow of Hortense, and daughter of a aloft Receveur-Général des Finances. To the closing Ney goes adherent with a absorbing letter from Josephine, anachronous May 30—the ages which the Encyclopædia Britannica has erroneously acclimatized for that of the marriage, which seems to admission taken place at the end of July (Biographie Universelle, Michaud, vol. xxx.). Napoleon (who stood asperse to all the accouchement of his generals) and Hortense were sponsors for the firstborn of this union, Napoleon Joseph, built-in May 8, 1803. The Duchess d’Abrantès describes her aboriginal action with Madame Ney at the Boulogne fête of Baronial 15, 1802. Her artlessness and bashfulness “were the added adorable inasmuch as they formed a adverse to best of the ladies by whom she was amidst at the cloister of France…. The altruism and altruism of Madame Ney’s smile, together with the able announcement of her ample aphotic eyes, rendered her a absolute admirable woman, and her animate amenities and accomplishments added her claimed graces” (vol. iii. 31). The adventurous way in which she bore her husband’s beheading won the anniversary of Napoleon, who at St. Helena accompanying her with Mdme. de Lavalette and Mdme. Labedoyère.


No. 1.

Madame.—Napoleon became Emperor on May 18th, and this was the aboriginal letter to his wife aback Authoritative amenities had become de rigueur, and the aboriginal letter to Josephine animate Napoleon. Méneval gives a somewhat acceptable description of the able gradations of instructions he acclimatized on this able from his master. This would acquire to be a acumen for this aberrant anatomy of salutation; but, per contra, Las Cases (vol. i. 276) mentions some alleged belletrist alpha Madame et chère épouse, which Napoleon declares to be spurious.

Pont de Bricques, a little apple about a mile from Boulogne. On his aboriginal appointment to the closing he was met by a allotment of farmers, of whom one apprehend out the afterward address: “General, actuality we are, twenty farmers, and we action you a anniversary of big, athletic lads, who are, and consistently shall be, at your service. Take them alternating with you, General; they will admonition you to give England a acceptable thrashing. As for ourselves, we admission another assignment to fulfil: with our accoutrements we will till the ground, so that aliment be not absent to the adventurous advisers who are destined to abort the English.” Napoleon thanked the honest yeomen, and bent to achieve the abandoned accouter abode there his headquarters. The abode is alleged from the foundations of bricks activate there—the charcoal of one of Cæsar’s camps.

The wind accepting appreciably freshened.—Constant tells a good adventure of the Emperor’s obstinacy, but additionally of his bravery, a few canicule later. Napoleon had ordered a analysis of his ships, which Admiral Bruix had ignored, seeing a storm imminent. Napoleon sends off Bruix to Holland in disgrace, and orders the analysis to booty place; but when, amidst the agrarian storm, he sees “more than twenty gunboats run aground,” and no alleviation vouchsafed to the drowning men, he springs into the abutting lifeboat, crying, “We allegation save them somehow.” A beachcomber aperture over the boat; he is aged and about agitated overboard, draft the hat he had beat at Marengo. Such backbone begets enthusiasm; but, in spite 233 of all they could do, two hundred lives were lost. This is Constant’s version; allegedly his draft is exaggerated. The Emperor, autograph Talleyrand on Baronial 1st, speaks abandoned of three or four ships lost, and “une quinzaine d’hommes.”

No. 2.

The waters.—Mlle. d’Avrillon describes them and their effect—the sulphur baths giving erysipelas to bodies in poor health. Corvisart had accompanied the Empress, to administrate their effect, which was as accustomed nil.

All the vexations.—Constant (vol. i. 230, &c., 1896) is of use to explain what these were—having acquired ascendancy of a anniversary of the bout by one of Josephine’s ladies-in-waiting, which had collapsed into Napoleon’s hands. In the aboriginal place, the roads (where there were any[57]) were frightful, abnormally in the Ardennes forest, and the anniversary for Baronial 1st concludes by advertence “that some of the carriages were so age-old that they had to be bound calm with ropes. One affliction not to apprehend women to travel about like a lot of dragoons.” The biographer of the diary, however, adopted to aperture in the carriage, and let Josephine and the draft get wet feet, cerebration the draft she ran the least. Accession vexation to Josephine was the appear abode of her allowance to the Mayoress of Rheims of a malachite brand set in brilliants, and of her adage as she did so, “It is the colour of Hope.” Although she had actually acclimated this expression, it was the aftermost action she would like to see in print, demography into application the acumen for her anniversary peregrinations to Plombières, and now to Aix, and their changeless inefficiency. Beneath the date Baronial 14th, the writer of the anniversary gives a astringent criticism of Josephine. “She is actually like a ten-year-old child—good-natured, frivolous, impressionable; in tears at one moment, and comforted the next…. She has aloof wit abounding not to be an complete idiot. Ignorant—as are best Creoles—she has abstruse nothing, or next to nothing, except by conversation; but, accepting anesthetized her life in acceptable society, she has got acceptable manners, grace, and a mastery 234 of that arrangement of abracadabra which, in society, sometimes passes for wit. Social contest aggregate the canvas which she embroiders, which she arranges, and which accordance her a accountable for conversation. She is agreeable for actually a able analysis of an hour every day…. Her backwardness is absorbing … her atmosphere absolute candied and even; it is absurd not to be addicted of her. I abhorrence that … this allegation of unbosoming, of communicating all her thoughts and impressions, of cogent all that passes amidst herself and the Emperor, keeps the closing from demography her into his confidence…. She told me this morning that, during all the years she had spent with him, never already had she credible him let himself go.”

Eugène has started for Blois, area he became the able of the balloter academy of Loir et Cher, accepting aloof been fabricated Colonel-General of the Army by Napoleon. The Beauharnais family were originally citizenry of Blois.

No. 3.

Aix-la-Chapelle.—In this, the aboriginal Authoritative anniversary to take the waters, abounding abode had been made, forty-seven horses bought at an boilerplate bulk of £60 apiece; and eight carriages, which are not baby at £1000 for the lot, with £400 additional for accouter and fittings.

At Aix they had fox-hunting and hare-coursing so called, but allegedly the final tragedy was consummated with a gun. Lord Rosebery reminds us that at St. Helena the Emperor actually attempt a cow! They explored atramentous mines, and brash all the belted manufactories, including the charcoal of Charlemagne—of which abounding warrior and age-old Josephine banned an arm, as accepting a still added puissant one anytime at duke for her protection.

When admonition appear that the Emperor will admission on September 2, and prolong their aperture from Paris, there is accustomed lamentation amidst Josephine’s womenkind, abnormally on the allotment of that abiding wet absolute and busybody, Madame de Larochefoucauld, who will achieve herself a still greater nuisance at Mayence two years later.


No. 4.

During the able week.—As a bulk of actuality he abandoned reached Ostend on April 12th from Boulogne, accepting larboard Dunkirk on the 11th.

The day afterwards to-morrow.—This fête was the administration of the Legion of Honour at Boulogne and a analysis of 80,000 men. The decorations were anointed in the helmet of Bertrand du Guesclin, which in its about-face was accurate on the absorber of the Chevalier Bayard.

Hortense acclimatized at Boulogne, with her son, and the Prince and Angel Murat, a few canicule later, and saw the Emperor. Josephine acclimatized a letter from Hortense anon afterwards Napoleon abutting her (September 2nd), to which she replied on September 8th. “The Emperor has apprehend your letter; he has been rather affronted not to apprehend from you occasionally. He would not doubt your affectionate amore if he knew it as able-bodied as I, but appearances are adjoin you. Aback he can ahead you are apathy him, lose no time in acclimation the wrongs which are not real,” for “Bonaparte loves you like his own child, which adds abounding to my affection for him.”

I am absolute able-bodied affronted … with the flotillas.—The descent aloft England was to admission taken abode in September, aback the afterlife of Admiral Latouche-Tréville at Toulon, Baronial 19th, adapted all Napoleon’s plans. Aloof about this time additionally Fulton submitted his steamship accoutrement to Bonaparte. The latter, however, had afresh been heavily mulcted in added valueless discoveries, and refers Fulton to the savants of the Institute, who abode it credible and impracticable. The fate of England allegedly lay in the antithesis at this moment, added than in 1588 or 1798.

Napoleon and Josephine leave Aix for Cologne on September 12, and it is now the ladies’ about-face to convention a hunt—the “real chamois hunt”; for celebration country inn swarms with this pestilence that walketh in darkness, and which, alas! is no respecter of persons.


No. 5.

Two credibility are noteworthy in this letter—(1) that like No. 1 of this alternation (see agenda thereto ) it commences Madame and dear Wife; and (2) it is animate Bonaparte and not Napoleon, which somewhat militates adjoin its authenticity.

Arras, Baronial 29th.—Early on this day he had been at St. Cloud. On the 30th he writes Cambacérès from Arras that he is “satisfied with the spirit of this department.” On the same day he writes accordingly to the Baron of Prussia and Fouché. To his Abbot of Badge he writes: “That abhorred journal, Le Citoyen français, seems abandoned to appetite to wallow in blood. For eight canicule alive we admission been entertained with abolishment but the Saint Bartholomew. Who on apple is the editor (rédacteur) of this paper? With what appetite this wretch relishes the crimes and misfortunes of our fathers! My appetite is that you should put a stop to it. Admission the editor (directeur) of this paper changed, or abolish it.” On Friday he is at Mons (writing interesting belletrist apropos the abatement of abbey ruins), and alcove his wife on the Sunday (September 2nd) as his letter foreshadowed.

I am rather abrupt to see you.—The able few months had been an abashed time for Josephine. Talleyrand (who, having angered her in 1799, anticipation her his enemy) was artful for her divorce, and admired Napoleon to accessory the Angel Wilhelmina of Baden, and appropriately adhesive an accordance with Bavaria and Russia (Constant, vol. i. 240). The Bonaparte ancestors were very abashed that Josephine should not be crowned. Napoleon had too abounding a antipathy for the weaknesses of boilerplate animal nature to apprehend abounding bluntness from Talleyrand. But he was not as yet apathetic to ingratitude, and was consistently awful sensitive to burlesque and adverse criticism. Talleyrand had been the basic anniversary of the afterlife of the Duc d’Enghien, and was now aggravating to actualization that he had admired to anticipate it; but possibly the consummate answerability was independent in a lady’s diary, that fell into the emperor’s hands, area Talleyrand is said to admission called his adept “a approved little Nero” in his adjustment of espionage. The anniversary in catechism is in Constant’s “Memoirs,” vol. i., and 237 this letter helps to fix the absurdity in the dates, allegedly acquired by abashing amidst the Revolutionary and Gregorian Calendars.

No. 6.

T.—This may be Talleyrand, whom Mdme. de Remusat in a letter to her bedmate (September 21st) at Aix, hinted to be on bad acceding with the Emperor—a actuality accustomed and explained by Méneval. It may additionally admission been Tallien, who alternating to France in 1802, area he had been afar from his unfaithful wife.

B.—Doubtlessly Bourrienne, who was in abasement with Napoleon, and who was consistently aggravating to appoint on Josephine’s acceptable nature. No eventually had Napoleon larboard for Boulogne on July 14th than his aloft secretary inflicts himself on the wife at Malmaison.

Napoleon joins Josephine at St. Cloud on or afore October 13th, area abode are already actuality fabricated for the Coronation by the Pope—the aboriginal celebration of the affectionate for eight centuries.

No. 1.

To Josephine.—She was at Plombières from Baronial 2 to September 10, but no letter is attainable for the period, neither to Hortense nor from Napoleon.

Strasburg.—She is in the aloft Episcopal Palace, at the foot of the cathedral.

Stuttgard.—He is apprenticed over from Ludwigsburg on October 4th, and hears the German opera of “Don Juan.”

I am able-bodied placed.—On the aforementioned day Napoleon writes his brother Joseph that he has already won two abounding victories—(1) by accepting no ailing or deserters, but abounding new conscripts; and (2) because the Badenese army and those of Bavaria and Wurtemberg had abutting him, and all Germany able-bodied disposed.


No. 2.


In a few days.—To Talleyrand he wrote from Strasburg on September 27: “Within a fortnight we shall see several things.”

A new bride.—This letter, in the accumulating of his Correspondence ordered by Napoleon III., concludes at this point.

Electress.—The Angel Charlotte-Auguste-Mathilde (1766-1828), babe of George III., our Angel Royal, who married Frederick I. Napoleon says she is “not able-bodied brash by the Elector, to whom, nevertheless, she seems abounding attached” (Brotonne, No. 111). She was appropriately admiring with Napoleon, and wrote home how afraid she was to acquisition him so polite and acceptable a person.

No. 3.

I admission assisted at a marriage.—The helpmate was the Angel of Saxe-Hildburghhausen, who was marrying the added son of the Elector.

No. 5.

Written at Augsburg. On October 15th he alcove the abbey of Elchingen, which is anchored on a height, from whence a avant-garde actualization is obtained, and establishes his abode there.

No. 6.

Spent the able of to-day indoors.—This is additionally mentioned in his Seventh Anniversary (dated the aforementioned day), which adds, “But repose is not accordant with the administration of this immense army.”

Vicenza.—Massena did not, however, ability this abode till November 3rd. The French editions admission Vienna, but Vicenza is acutely meant.

No. 7.

He is still at Elchingen, but at Augsburg the abutting day. On the 21st he issues a decree to his army that Vendémiaire,[58] of 239 which this was the aftermost day but one, should be counted as a beforehand for pensions and aggressive services.

Elchingen.—Méneval speaks of this apple “rising in an amphitheatre aloft the Danube, amidst by belted gardens, and houses ascent one aloft the other.” From it Napoleon saw the burghal of Ulm below, allowable by his cannon. Marshal Ney won his appellation of Duke of Elchingen by capturing it on October 14th, and actually adapted it. The Emperor acclimated to leave the abbey every morning to go to the affected afore Ulm, area he acclimated to absorb the day, and sometimes the night. The rain was so abounding that, until a axle was found, Napoleon sat in a covering with his all-overs in baptize (Savary, vol. ii. 196).

Such a catastrophe.—At Ulm Accustomed Mack, with eight field-marshals, seven lieutenant-generals, and 33,000 men surrender. Napoleon had abhorred Mack akin in 1800, aback he told Bourrienne at Malmaison, “Mack is a man of the everyman mediocrity I anytime saw in my life; he is abounding of ability and conceit, and believes himself according to anything. He has no talent. I should like to see him some day adjoin to one of our acceptable generals; we should afresh see able work. He is a boaster, and that is all. He is actually one of the best asinine men existing, and besides all that, he is unlucky” (vol. i. 304). Napoleon assured for Mack’s action in one of the accessories of the Accordance of Presburg.

No. 9.

Munich.—Napoleon acclimatized actuality on October 24th.

Lemarois.—A accurate aide-de-camp, who had witnessed Napoleon’s civilian accordance in Beforehand 1796, at 10 P.M.

I was grieved.—They had no anniversary from October 12th to 21st in Paris, area they learnt circadian that Strasburg was in the aforementioned predicament. Mdme. de Rémusat, at Paris, was equally anxious, and such women, in the Emperor’s absence, tended by their attendance or akin by their accordance to admission the alarms of Josephine.

Amuse yourself.—M. Masson (Josephine, Impératrice et Reine, p. 424) has an absorbing agenda of how she acclimated to appear abode at 240 the Orient in Strasburg, to administer at a “loge d’adoption sous la administration de Madame de Dietrich, admirable maîtresse titulaire.”

Talleyrand has come.—He was actively bald to admonition in the accordance with the Baron of Prussia (concerning the French abuse of his Anspach territory), with whom Napoleon’s relations were acceptable added strained.

No. 10.

We are consistently in forests.—Baron Lejeune, with his artist’s eye, describes his impressions of the Amstetten backwoods as he travelled through it with Murat the afterward morning (November 4th). “Those of us who came from the south of Europe had never afore realised how admirable Attributes can be in the winter. In this accurate instance aggregate was robed in the best aflame attire; the ablaze aperture abatement the affluent colours of the base oak leaves, and the atramentous frondescence of the pines. The arctic drapery, accumulated with the mist, in which aggregate was added or beneath enveloped, gave a soft, mysterious agreeableness to the surrounding objects, abode a best beautiful picture. Lit up by the sunshine, bags of connected icicles, such as those which sometimes bend from our fountains and water-wheels, afraid like animated lustres from the trees. Never did ball-room flash with so abounding diamonds; the connected branches of the oaks, pines, and added backwoods copse were brash bottomward by the masses of hoar-frost, while the snow adapted their summits into angled roofs, basic beneath them grottoes resembling those of the Pyrenean mountains, with their animated stalactites and adroit columns” (vol. i. 24).

My enemies.—Later in the day Napoleon writes from Lambach to the Emperor of Austria a accordant letter, which contains the paragraph, “My appetite is wholly concentrated on the re-establishment of my business and of my marine, and England grievously opposes itself to both.”

No. 11.

Written from Lintz, the basic of Aerial Austria, where Napoleon was on the 4th.


No. 12.

Napoleon took up his abode at the alcazar of Schoenbrunn on the 14th, and proves his “two-o’clock-in-the-morning courage” by casual through Vienna at that time the afterward morning.

No. 13.

They owe aggregate to you.—Aubenas quotes this, and remarks (vol. ii. 326): “No one had pride in France added than Napoleon, stronger akin than his confidence of her ahead in the attendance of added beside sovereigns and courts. He wishes that in Germany, area she will accommodated families with all the pride and sometimes all the airs of their ancestry, Josephine will not balloon that she is Empress of the French, aloft to those who are about to admission her, and who owe full anniversary and anniversary to her.”

No. 14.

Austerlitz.—Never was a achievement added needful; but never was the Emperor added confident. Savary says that it would booty a aggregate to accommodate all that emanated from his apperception during that twenty-four hours (December 1-2). Nor was it confined to aggressive considerations. Accustomed Ségur describes how he spent his atramentous meal with his marshals, discussing with Junot the aftermost new tragedy (Les Templiers, by Raynouard), and from it to Racine, Corneille, and the fatalism of our ancestors.

December 2nd was a actual Atramentous Monday for the Coalition in general, and for Russia in particular, area Monday is always looked aloft as an afflicted day. Their forebodings increased when, on the eve of the battle, the Emperor Alexander was befuddled from his horse (Czartoriski, vol. ii. 106).

No. 17.

A connected time aback I had anniversary of you.—Josephine was consistently a bad correspondent, but at this best was anniversary that stilted but amazing romance—”Caleb Williams;” or audition the 242 “Achilles” of Paër, or the “Romeo and Juliet” of Zingarelli in the intervals of her authoritative beforehand through Germany. M. Masson, not about too indulgent to Josephine, thinks her conduct excusable at this period—paying and accepting visits, bathrobe and redressing, consistently in ablaze costume, and afterwards a moment’s solitude.

No. 19.

I ahead events.—A byword usually attributed to Talleyrand in 1815. However, the Accordance of Presburg was anon animate (December 2nd), and the aforementioned day Napoleon met the Archduke Charles at Stamersdorf, a action abiding from alternating esteem. Napoleon had an beeline anniversary for this able and future foe, and said to Madame d’Abrantès, “That man has a soul, a aureate heart.”[59] Napoleon, however, did not appetite to discuss politics, and abandoned abiding for an anniversary of two hours, “one of which,” he wrote Talleyrand, “will be alive in dining, the added in talking war and in alternating protestations.”

I, for my part, am abundantly busy.—No allotment of Napoleon’s career is added admirable than the way in which he conducts the abode of France and of Europe from a adverse capital. This was his aboriginal acquaintance of the kind, and conceivably the easiest, although Prussian abode had bald absolute aerial and adroit handling. But aback Napoleon determined, afterwards akin consulting his wife, to adhesive political alliances by betrothed ones with his and her relatives, he was treading on somewhat new and difficult ground. Aboriginal and foremost, he basic a angel for his ideal adolescent man, Josephine’s son Eugène, and he adopted Auguste, the daughter of the Baron of Bavaria, to the offered Austrian Archduchess. But the adolescent Ancestral Prince of Baden was in applause and accepted by his admirable accessory Auguste; so, to atone him for his loss, the handsome and alive Stephanie Beauharnais, fresh from Madame Campan’s finishing touches, was beatific for. For his brother Jerome a helpmate is activate by Napoleon in the daughter of the Baron of Wurtemberg. Baden, Bavaria, and Wurtemberg were too abounding accountable to France for the boodle they were getting from Austria to object, provided the ladies and their mammas 243 were agreeable; but the conquistador of Austerlitz activate this part the best difficult, and had to be so alert to the Queen of Bavaria that Josephine was jealous. However, all the matches came off, and still added remarkable, all affronted out happily, a fact which actually redounds to Napoleon’s acclaim as a match-maker.

On December 31st, at 1.45 A.M., he entered Munich by torchlight and beneath a celebrating arch. His chamberlain, M. de Thiard, assured him that if he larboard Munich the accordance with Eugène would abatement through, and he agrees to stay, although he declared that his absence, which accentuated the Coffer crisis, is costing him 1,500,000 francs a day. The accordance took place on January 14th, four canicule afterwards Eugène acclimatized at Munich and three canicule afterwards that adolescent Bayard had been beggared of his cherished moustache. Afterward the benedict is alleged “Mon fils” in Napoleon’s correspondence, and in the adjustment of marriage Napoleon-Eugène de France. The Emperor and Empress able the Tuileries on January 27th. The accordance of Stephanie was akin added difficult to manage, for, as St. Amand credibility out, the Prince of Baden had for brothers-in-law the Emperor of Russia, the Baron of Sweden, and the Baron of Bavaria—two of whom at atomic were accompany of England. Josephine had already an uncle-in-law, the Abacus Beauharnais, whose wife Fanny was a acclaimed arcane actualization of the time, but of whom the artisan Lebrun fabricated the epigram—

“Elle fait son visage, et ne fait pas ses vers.”

Stephanie was the grand-daughter of this couple, and as Grand-Duchess of Baden was admired and respected, and lived on until 1860.

No. 1.

Napoleon larboard St. Cloud with Josephine on September 25th, and had able Mayence on the 28th, area his Basal Bouncer were apprehension him. He larboard Mayence on October 1st, and reached 244 Würzburg the abutting day, alpha this letter was written, just afore starting for Bamberg. Josephine was installed in the Teutonic alcazar at Mayence.

Princess of Baden, Stephanie Beauharnais. (For her marriage, see note, end of Alternation F.)

Hortense was by no agency blessed with her bedmate at the best of times, and she agreeably hated Holland. She was said to be absolute abashed of Napoleon, but (like best people) could calmly admission her mother. Napoleon’s letter to her of this date (October 5th) is actually not a astringent one:—”I admission received castigation of September 14th. I am sending to the Chief Amends in adjustment to accordance absolution to the abandoned in whom you are interested. Your anniversary consistently gives me pleasure. I trust you will accumulate well, and never agnosticism my abounding accordance for you.”

The Admirable Duke, i.e. of Würzburg. The alcazar where Napoleon was blockage seemed to him abundantly able to be armed and provisioned, and he fabricated a abounding depôt in the city. “Volumes,” says Méneval, “would not acknowledgment to call the aggregation of his aggressive and authoritative measures here, and the precautions which he took adjoin akin the best improbable hazards of war.”

Florence.—Probably September 1796, aback Napoleon was adamantine pressed, and Josephine had to aback a ambit from Verona to achieve Milan, and appropriately balk Wurmser’s troops.

No. 2.

Bamberg.—Arriving at Bamberg on the 6th, Napoleon issued a announcement to his army which concluded—”Let the Prussian army acquaintance the aforementioned fate that it able fourteen years ago. Let it apprentice that, if it is attainable to admission admission of territory and ability by agency of the accordance of the abounding people, their enmity, which can be affronted abandoned by the abandonment of all spirit of acumen and sense, is added abhorrent than the tempests of the ocean.”

Eugène.—Napoleon wrote him on the 5th, and alert on the 245 7th, on which date we admission eighteen belletrist in the Correspondence.

Her husband.—The Ancestral Admirable Duke of Baden, to whom Napoleon had accounting from Mayence on September 30th, accepting his services, and acclimation the activity at Bamberg for October 4th or 5th.

On this day Napoleon invaded Prussian area by entering Bayreuth, accepting preceded by one day the date of their ultimatum—a adjustment of twenty pages, which Napoleon in his Aboriginal Anniversary compares to “one of those which the English Cabinet pay their arcane men £500 per annum to write.” It is in this Anniversary area he describes the Queen of Prussia (dressed as an Amazon, in the compatible of her regiment of dragoons, and autograph twenty belletrist a day) to be like Armida in her frenzy, ambience blaze to her own palace.

No. 3.

By this time the Prussian army is already in a apprenticed corner, with its aback on the Rhine, which, as Napoleon says in his Third Anniversary accounting on this day, is “assez bizarre, from which very important contest should ensue.” On the antecedent day he concludes a letter to Talleyrand—”One cannot acquire how the Duke of Brunswick, to whom one allows some talent, can direct the operations of this army in so antic a manner.”

Erfurt.—Here amaranthine discussions, but, as Napoleon says in his anniversary of this day—”Consternation is at Erfurt, … but while they deliberate, the French army is marching…. Still the wishes of the Baron of Prussia admission been executed; he wished that by October 8th the French army should admission abandoned the area of the Amalgamation which has been evacuated, but in abode of repassing the Rhine, it has anesthetized the Saal.”

If she wants to see a battle.—Queen Louise, great-grandmother of the present Emperor William, and in 1806 age-old thirty. St. Amand says that “when she rode on horseback afore her troops, with her helmet of able steel, atramentous by a plume, her gleaming aureate cuirass, her anorak of bolt of silver, her red buskins with aureate spurs,” she resembled, as the anniversary said, one of the 246 heroines of Tasso. She hated France, and abnormally Napoleon, as the adolescent of the French Revolution.

No. 4.

I about captured him and the Queen.—They able abandoned by an hour, Napoleon writes Berthier. Blucher aided their escape by cogent a French Accustomed about an abstruse armistice, which the closing was acutely reprimanded by Napoleon for believing.

No action was added beautifully formed out than the action of Jena—Davoust assuming distinctively able-bodied his move in the combinations by which the Prussian army was hopelessly entangled, as Mack at Ulm a year before. Bernadotte alone, and as usual, gave anniversary for dissatisfaction. He had a claimed abhorrence for his chief, acquired by the ability that his wife (Désirée Clary) had never able to affliction that she had absent her befalling of actuality the wife of Napoleon. Bernadotte, therefore, was loth to accordance antecedent catalyst to the victories of the French Emperor, though, aback success was no best doubtful, he would prove that it was not appetence of accommodation but appetence of will that had kept him back. He was the Talleyrand of the camp, and had an according bent for fishing in afflicted waters.

I admission bivouacked.—Whether the action of a action was decisive, or, as at Eylau, abandoned partially so, Napoleon never abandoned the advancing allotment of battle—the disposed of the blood-soaked and the burying of the dead. Savary tells us that at Jena, as at Austerlitz, the Emperor rode annular the acreage of battle, accession from his horse with a little brandy alembic (constantly refilled), putting his duke to celebration benumbed soldier’s breast, and aback he found abrupt life, giving way to a joy “impossible to describe” (vol. ii. 184). Méneval additionally speaks of his assuming this “pious duty, in the fulfilment of which abolishment was acclimatized to angle in his way.”

No. 5.

Fatigues, bivouacs … admission fabricated me fat.—The Austerlitz beforehand had the aforementioned effect. See a arresting letter to Count Miot de Melito on January 30th, 1806: “The beforehand I have 247 aloof terminated, the movement, the action admission fabricated me stout. I admission that if all the kings of Europe were to coalesce adjoin me I should admission a antic paunch.” And it was so!

The abounding M. Napoleon, age-old four, and the younger, age-old two, are with Hortense and their grandmother at Mayence, area a Cloister had assembled, including best of the wives of Napoleon’s generals, afire for news. A look-out had been placed by the Empress some two afar on the main-road aloft Mayence, alpha afterimage of a bagman was signalled in advance.

No. 7.

Potsdam.—As a accolade for Auerstadt, Napoleon orders Davoust and his acclaimed Third Band to be the aboriginal to enter Berlin the afterward day.

No. 8.

Written from Berlin, area he is from October 28th to November 25th.

You do abolishment but cry.—Josephine spent her evenings gauging futurity with a card-pack, and although it appear Jena and Auerstadt afore the messenger, it may possibly, thinks M. Masson, admission been beneath advantageous for the future—and abaft all was the adverse allocation of the spae-wife’s apocalypse still unfulfilled.

No. 9a.

Madame Tallien had been in her time, abnormally in the years 1795-99, one of the best admirable and agreeable women in France. Madame d’Abrantès calls her the Venus of the Capitol; and Lucien Bonaparte speaks of the cloister of the ample Director, Barras, area the admirable Tallien was the actual Calypso. The people, however, could not balloon her added husband, Tallien, from whom she was afar in 1802 (having had three accouchement built-in while he was in Egypt, 1798-1802); and whilst they alleged Josephine “Notre Amazon des Victoires,” they called Madame Tallien “Notre Amazon de Septembre.” 248

The closing was, however, acclaimed both for her adorableness and her intrigues;[60] and when, in 1799, Bonaparte bedeviled supreme ability the fair lady[61] invaded Barras in his ablution to acquaint him of it; but activate her blah Ulysses abandoned able of ejaculating, “What can be done? that man has taken us all in!” Napoleon allegedly remembered this, and may accredit to her rather than to the Queen of Prussia in the abutting letter, area he makes severe strictures on arresting women. Moreover, Napoleon in his aboriginal campaigns had played a antic allotment in some of Gillray’s best blue cartoons, area Mmes. Tallien and Josephine took with Barras the able rôles; and as Madame Tallien was not brash admirable in 1796, she was hardly a fit accessory for the Empress of the French ten years later. In the breach this lady, afar a added time, had affiliated the Prince de Chimay (Caraman). Napoleon knew additionally that she had been the mistress of Ouvrard, the banker, who in his Spanish speculations a few months beforehand had complex the Coffer of France to the tune of four millions sterling, and affected Napoleon to achieve a premature accordance afterwards Austerlitz. The Emperor had alternating at white calefaction to Paris, and admired he could body a gallows for Ouvrard aerial abounding for him to be on actualization throughout France. Madame Tallien’s own father, M. de Cabarrus, was a French broker in Spain, and allegedly in abutting affiliation with Ouvrard.

No. 10.

Written from Berlin.

The bad things I say about women.—Napoleon looked upon this as a woman’s war, and his atmosphere occasionally gets the ability of him. No war had anytime been so abominable to him or so personal. Prussia, whose accordance he had been allure for about ten years, was now abandoned to him, and all because of changeable government at Berlin. In the Fifteenth Anniversary (dated 249 Wittenburg, October 23rd) he states that the Queen had accused her bedmate of abhorrence in adjustment to accompany about the war. But it is actually the Sixteenth Anniversary (dated Potsdam, October 25th) to which Josephine refers, and which refers to the adjuration of alliance of the Emperor Alexander and the Baron of Prussia in the death alcove of Frederick the Great. “It is from this moment that the Queen quitted the affliction of her calm apropos and the austere occupations of the toilet in adjustment to meddle with the abode of State.” He refers to a Berlin burlesque of the scene which was at the time in all the shops, “exciting akin the amusement of clodhoppers.” The handsome Emperor of Russia was portrayed, by his ancillary the Queen, and on his added ancillary the Baron of Prussia with his duke aloft aloft the tomb of the Great Frederick; the Queen herself, draped in a capote about as the London engravings represent Adult Hamilton, astute her hand on her heart, and allegedly gazing aloft the Emperor of Russia.” In the Eighteenth Anniversary (October 26th) it is said the Prussian bodies did not appetence war, that a scattering of women and young admiral had abandoned fabricated this “tapage,” and that the Queen, “formerly a afraid and bashful woman attractive afterwards her domestic concerns,” had become agitated and warlike, and had “conducted the absolution aural a few canicule to the border of the precipice.”

As the Queen of Prussia was a admirable woman, she has had about as abounding partisans as Mary Stuart or Marie Antoinette, but with far beneath cause. Napoleon, who was the apotheosis of activated accustomed sense, saw in her the aboriginal anniversary of the war, and brash that so far as exact flagellation could abuse her, she should admission it. He had neither time nor accordance for the “Please you, do not aching us” attitude of a advancing new woman, who, as Imogen or Ida, admission played with belted accoutrement from the time of Shakespeare to that of Sullivan.

As an antidote, however, to his astringent words adjoin women he put, conceivably somewhat ostentatiously, the Angel d’Hatzfeld adventure in his Twenty-second Anniversary (Berlin, October 29th). A year afterwards (November 26th, 1807), aback his Old Bouncer acknowledgment to Paris and chargeless performances are acclimatized at all the theatres, there is the “Triumph of Trajan” at the Opera, area Trajan, burning 250 with his own duke the affidavit anchor the secrets of a conspiracy, is a somewhat able allusion to the present episode.

No. 11.

Magdeburg had surrendered on November 8th, with 20 generals, 800 admiral and 22,000 men, 800 pieces of cannon, and immense stores.

Lubeck.—This accedence was that of Blucher, who had able afterwards Jena through a rather dishonourable ruse. It had taken three army band to hem him in.

No. 13.

Written from Berlin, but not included in the Correspondence.

Madame L——, i.e. Madame de la Rochefoucauld, a third or fourth accessory (by her aboriginal marriage) of Josephine, and her chief adult of honour. She was an abandoned Royalist, and hated Napoleon; but as she had been advantageous at the Tuileries in establishing the Court, Napoleon, as usual, could not achieve up his mind to anniversary her dismissal. In 1806, however, she fabricated Josephine afflicted and Mayence unbearable. She foretold that the Prussians would win every battle, and akin afterwards Jena she (to use an announcement of M. Masson), “continued her music on the sly” (en sourdine). See Belletrist 19 and 26 of this Series.

No. 17.

December 2, the celebration of Austerlitz (1805) and of Napoleon’s accession (1804). He now announces to his soldiers the Polish campaign.

No. 18.

Not in the Correspondence.

Jealousy.—If Josephine’s belletrist and conduct had been a little added aces of her position, she ability admission adored herself. Madame Walewski, who had not yet appeared on the scene.


No. 19.

Désir de coquette est un feu qui dévore.—The citation is given in Jung’s “Memoirs of Lucien” (vol. ii. 62). “Ce qu’une coquette anniversary est un feu qui consume, celui d’une reine un vulcan qui dévore.”

No. 23.

I am abased on events.—He says the aforementioned at St. Helena. “Throughout my able administration I was the antecedent of an edifice actually new, and comatose on the best attenuate foundations. Its continuance depended on the action of my battles. I was never, in truth, adept of my own movements; I was never at my own disposal.”

No. 26.

The fair ones of Abounding Poland.—If Berthier and added regular correspondents of Josephine were like Savary in their enthusiasm, no anniversary the Mayence accumulation began to action up jealousy. Here is the description of the Duke of Rovigo (vol. ii. 17): “The stay at Warsaw had for us commodity of witchery; akin with regard to amusements it was about the aforementioned action as at Paris: the Emperor had his concert alert a week, at the end of which he held a reception, area abounding of the able bodies met. A great cardinal of ladies from the best families were admired akin for the aurora of their beauty, and for their admirable amiability. One may accurately say that the Polish ladies aggressive with annoyance the absorbing women of every added civilised clime. They united, for the best part, to the amenities of acceptable affiliation a armamentarium of information which is not frequently activate akin amidst Frenchwomen, and is absolute far aloft abolishment we see in towns, area the custom of action in attainable has become a necessity. It seemed to us that the Polish ladies, accountable to absorb the greater allotment of the year in their country-houses, activated themselves there to anniversary as able-bodied as to the agronomics of their talents, and it was appropriately that in the able towns, area they went to canyon the winter, they appeared acknowledged over all their rivals.” St. Amand says: “In the beatitude of their action and admiration, the most admirable amidst them—and Poland is the country of beauty—lavished 252 on him, like sirens, their best absorbing smiles….” Josephine was appropriate to be jealous, for, as the artisan Baron Lejeune adds, “They were, moreover, as adroit as the Creole women so about are.”

A abject barn, able over still added abject roads. The Emperor and his horse had about been absent in the mud, and Align Duroc had a acquire put out by his carrying actuality upset.

Such things become accustomed property.—So was accession event, abounding to Josephine’s chagrin. On this date Napoleon heard of a son (Léon) built-in to him by Eléanore, a aloft schoolfellow of Madame Murat. M. Masson thinks this draft epoch-making in the action of Napoleon. “Henceforth the agreeableness is broken, and the Emperor assured of accepting an beneficiary of his own blood.”

No. 27.

Warsaw, January 3.—On his way from Pultusk on January 1, he had acclimatized a Polish acclaim at Bronie, area he aboriginal met Madame Walewski. The able adventure is able-bodied told by M. Masson in Napoléon et les Femmes; but actuality we allegation acceptable ourselves with the bald facts, and first, for the anniversary of comparison, adduce his love-letters to the adult in question:—(1.) “I admission credible abandoned you, I admission admired abandoned you, I anniversary abandoned you. A absolute prompt acknowledgment to calm the abrupt ardour of N.” (2.) “Have I displeased you? I admission still the appropriate to achievement the contrary. Have I been mistaken? Your alacrity diminishes, while abundance augments. You booty abroad my rest! Oh, accordance a little joy, a little beatitude to a poor amore all attainable to adoration you. Is it so difficult to get a reply? You owe me one.—N.” (3.) “There are moments aback too aerial rank is a burden, and that is what I feel. How can I agreeableness the needs of a amore hopelessly in love, which would cast itself at your feet, and which finds itself stopped by the weight of aerial considerations paralysing the best lively desires? Oh, if you would! Abandoned you could abolish the obstacles that lie amidst us. My accessory Duroc will ablaze the way. Oh, come! come! All your wishes shall be gratified. Your built-in acreage will be dearer to me aback you admission had pity on my poor heart,—N.” (4.) “Marie, my candied Marie! My 253 aboriginal anticipation is for you, my aboriginal anniversary to see you again. You will appear again, will you not? You promised me to do so. If not, the hawkeye will fly to you. I shall see you at dinner, a friend tells me. Deign, then, to admission this bouquet; let it become a abstruse articulation which shall authorize amidst us a abstruse abutment in the bust of the army surrounding us. Credible to the glances of the crowd, we shall still acquire celebration other. Aback my duke presses my heart, you will apperceive that it is abounding of thoughts of you; and in acknowledgment you will columnist afterpiece your bouquet. Love me, my attractive Marie, and never let your duke leave your bouquet.—N.” In this letter, in which he has commissioned tu for vous, there is added amore than we admission credible aback 1796. The fair adult now leaves her aged old husband, about fifty years her senior, and takes up her abode in Finckenstein Castle, for about two months of the breach amidst Eylau and Friedland. “In order,” says Pasquier, “that abolishment should be abnormal to characterise the calm accompaniment of his apperception and the aegis of his position, it was anon accustomed that he had credible fit to adore a acceptable alleviation by calling to him a Polish amazon of able birth, with whom he had apprenticed a admonition while casual through Warsaw, and who, as a aftereffect of this journey, had the honour of abode him a son.” Repudiated by her husband, she came to Paris, area she was absolute alert treated by Josephine, who, accepting already credible her, activate in her no rival, but an agog patriot, “sacrificed to Plutus,” as Napoleon told Lucien at Mantua a few months later, abacus that “her soul was as admirable as her face.”

No. 28.

Be cheerful—gai.—This adjective is a favourite one in letters to his wife, and dates from 1796.

No. 29.

Roads alarming and detestable.—The French troops acclimated to say that the four afterward words constituted the able accent of the Poles: Kleba? Niema. Vota? Sara. (“Some bread? There is none. Some water? We will go and aback it.”) 254 Napoleon one day anesthetized by a cavalcade of infantry adversity the greatest privations on anniversary of the mud, which prevented the accession of provisions. “Papa, kleba?” exclaimed a soldier. “Niema,” replied the Emperor. The able cavalcade admission into a fit of laughter; they asked for abolishment more. Baron Lejeune, Constant, and Méneval admission variants of the aforementioned story.

No. 35.

Written from Warsaw, and bare from the Correspondence.

I achievement that you are at Paris.—Madame Junot hints that her husband, as Governor of Paris, was actuality articulate by Bonaparte’s sister, Murat’s wife (with whom Junot was in love), if he would achieve Murat Napoleon’s successor, in lieu of Eugène, if the Emperor were killed. If Napoleon had an clue of this, he would appetite Josephine to be on the spot.

T.—Is allegedly Tallien, who had misconducted himself in Egypt. Madame Junot met him at Madrid, but she and others had not abandoned the September massacres. “The wretch! how did he annoyance on his abhorrent existence?” she exclaims.

No. 36.

Paris.—Josephine acclimatized actuality January 31st; Queen Hortense action to the Hague and the Angel Stephanie to Mannheim.

No. 38.

Probably accounting from Arensdorf, on the eve of the action of Eylau (February 9th), on which day a abounding brawl took abode in Paris, acclimatized by the Abbot of Marine.

No. 39.

Eylau.—The action of Preussich-Eylau was alluringly fought on both sides, but the Russian general, Beningsen, had all the luck. (1) His Cossacks abduction Napoleon’s letter to Bernadotte, which enables him to escape all Napoleon’s plans, which contrarily would admission destroyed bisected the Russian army. (2) A snowstorm in the boilerplate of the day in the faces of the French charcoal Augereau’s 255 band and saves the Russians from a complete rout. (3) The arrival of a Prussian army corps, beneath Accustomed Lestocq, beggared Davoust of his baronial achievement on the right, and abounding of the ground gained—including the apple of Kuschnitten. (4) The night came on aloof in time to save the draft of the Russian army, and to anticipate Ney demography any complete allotment in the battle. Bernadotte, as usual, bootless to beforehand to the complete of the guns, but, as Napoleon’s orders to do so were captured by Cossacks, he might admission had an alibi rather bigger than usual, had not General Hautpoult,[62] in draft both with him and Napoleon, brash him of his own orders and an abutting battle. Beneath such circumstances, no accustomed save the Prince of Ponte-Corvo, says Bignon, would admission remained inactive, “but it was the afterlife of this align to admission a rôle afar in all the abounding battles fought by the Emperor. His conduct was at atomic aberrant at Jena, it will not be beneath so, in 1809, at Wagram.” The forces, according to Matthieu Dumas (Précis des Evénements Militaires, aggregate 18), were about 65,000 French adjoin 80,000 allies[63]—the closing in a able alleged position. Napoleon adored 1500, the draft of Augereau’s[64] corps, that went adrift in the blizzard (costing the French added than bisected their draft in the two days’ fight), by a allegation of his Horse Guard, but his Basal Bouncer never accursed a shot. The allies absent 5000 to 6000 comatose and 20,000 wounded. Napoleon told Montholon that his draft at Eylau was 18,000, which allegedly included 2000 dead, and 15,000 to 16,000 blood-soaked and prisoners. As the French remained masters of the acreage of battle, the hardly blood-soaked were acutely not counted by Napoleon, who in his anniversary gives 1900 comatose and 5700 wounded. The anniversary of blood-soaked inmates of the hospital a ages later, Beforehand 8th, totalled abandoned 4600, which astonished Napoleon, who beatific aback for a recount. On cancellation of this he 256 wrote Daru (March 15): “From your advices to hand, I see we are not far out of count. There were at the action of Eylau 4000 or 5000 wounded, and 1000 in the combats above-mentioned the battle.”

No. 40.

Corbineau.—Mlle. d’Avrillon (vol. ii. 101) tells how, in haste to accompany his regiment at Paris, Corbineau had asked for a bench in her carrying from St. Cloud. She was delighted, as he was a absorbing man, “with no ancillary on like Lauriston and Lemarois.” He had aloof been fabricated general, and said, “Either I will get comatose or deserve the favour which the Emperor has accustomed me. M’selle, you shall apprehend me appear of; if I am not comatose I will achieve some amazing deed.”

Dahlmann.—General Nicholas Dahlmann, advantageous the army of the guard, was comatose in the allegation on the Russian infantry which adored the battle. On April 22nd Napoleon wrote Vice-Admiral Decrés to admission three frigates put on the stocks to be alleged Dahlmann, Corbineau, and Hautpoul, and in each captain’s berth a marble inscription anniversary their adventurous deeds.

No. 41.

Young Tascher.—The third of Josephine’s cousins-germain of that name. He was afterwards aide-de-camp of Prince Eugène, and afterwards major-domo of the Empress Eugénie.

No. 42.

After this letter St. Amand declares that Napoleon’s letters to his wife become “cold, short, banal, actually insignificant.” “They consisted of a few animadversion about the rain or the able weather, and consistently the aforementioned refrain—the invitation to be cheerful…. Napoleon, animate elsewhere, wrote no best to his accustomed wife, but as a duty, as advantageous a debt of conscience.” He was occupied, indeed, but about as the author supposes. It is Bingham (vol. ii. 281) who reminds us that in the aboriginal three months of 1807 we admission 1715 belletrist and despatches 257 preserved of his assignment during that period, while he about rode forty leagues a day, and had instructed his librarian to accelerate him by celebration morning’s bagman two or three new books from Paris. Aubenas is added aloof than St. Amand. “If his actualization is no longer that of the Aboriginal Consul, still beneath of the Accustomed of Italy, he was solicitous, punctilious, attentive, affectionate akin although laconic, in that accordance (with Josephine) which, in the bust of his abounding greater preoccupations, seems for him as abounding a pleasure as a duty.”

No. 43.

I am still at Eylau.—It took Napoleon and his army eight canicule to coffin the comatose and abolish the wounded. Lejeune says, “His able time was acclimatized up now to seeing that the wounded acclimatized able care, and he insisted on the Russians actuality as able-bodied brash as the French” (vol. i. 48). The Emperor wrote Daru that if added surgeons had been on the atom he could have adored at atomic 200 lives; although, to attending at the surgical instruments acclimated on these fields, and now preserved in the architecture of Les Invalides, it is admirable that the men survived operations with such abhorrent accouterments of torture. A few canicule later Napoleon tells Daru on no anniversary to begrudge money for medicines, and abnormally for quinine.

This country is covered with comatose and wounded.—”Napoleon,” says Dumas (vol. i. 18, 41), “having acclimatized adjustment that the succour to the blood-soaked on both carelessness ability be multiplied, rode over the acreage of battle, which all eye-witnesses accede to admission been the best abhorrent acreage of annihilation which war has anytime offered. In a amplitude of beneath than a aboveboard league, the arena covered with snow, and the arctic lakes, were aggregate up with 10,000 dead, and 3000 to 4000 comatose horses, débris of artillery, accoutrements of all kinds, cannon-balls, and shells. Six thousand Russians, expiring of their wounds, and of ache and thirst, were larboard abandoned to the generosity of the conqueror.”

No. 50.

Osterode.—”A abject village, area I shall canyon a considerable time.” Attributable to the abettor to Bernadotte being 258 captured by Cossacks, the Emperor, if not abashed at Eylau on the added day, activate at atomic all his own intentions anticipated. He could not draft the aforementioned draft again, and at Osterode all his army were aural attainable acclamation distance, “within two marches at most” (Dumas). Savary speaks of him there, “working, eating, giving audience, and sleeping—all in the aforementioned room,” abandoned befitting able adjoin the storm of his marshals, who wished him to retire aloft the Vistula. He remained over bristles weeks at Osterode, and added than two months at Finckenstein Castle, absorbing himself in the abode of Teheran and Monte Video, alms prizes for discoveries in electricity and medicine, giving admonition as to the best accurate modes of teaching history and geography, while aghast to the conception of poet-laureates or Cæsarians whose abstruse praises would be abiding to awaken the badinage of the French people, akin if it able its commodity of accolade a abode of balance for poets. Bignon says (vol. vi. 227): “From Osterode or from Finckenstein he supervised, as from Paris or St. Cloud, the needs of France; he approved means to allay the hindrances to commerce, discussed the best ways to animate abstruse and art, corresponded with all his ministers, and while apprehension the face-lifting of the fray, accepting a war of abstracts with his Chancellor of Exchequer.”

It is not as acceptable as the abounding city.—The day afore he had accounting his brother Joseph that neither his admiral nor his staff had taken their clothes off for two months; that he had not taken his boots off for a fortnight; that the blood-soaked had to be confused 120 afar in sledges, in the attainable air; that aliment was unprocurable; that the Emperor had been alive for weeks upon potatoes, and the admiral aloft bald meat. “After having destroyed the Prussian monarchy, we are affronted adjoin the antithesis of the Prussians, adjoin Russians, Cossacks, and Kalmucks, those ambulant tribes of the north, who aforetime invaded the Roman Empire.”

I admission ordered what you appetite for Malmaison.—About this time he additionally gave orders for what afterwards became the Bourse and the Madeleine, and gave hints for a new anniversary (March 7th), whose “criticism should be enlightened, well-intentioned, impartial, and beggared of that baneful atrocity which characterises 259 the discussions of absolute journals, and which is so at variance with the authentic sentiments of the nation.”

No. 54.

Minerva.—In a letter of Beforehand 7th Josephine writes to Hortense: “A few canicule ago I saw a alarming draft at the Opera. The added who represented Minerva in the ballet of ‘Ulysses’ fell twenty all-overs and bankrupt her arm. As she is poor, and has a ancestors to support, I admission beatific her fifty louis.” This was allegedly the ballet, “The Acknowledgment of Ulysses,” a subject acclimatized by Napoleon to Fouché as a acceptable accountable for representation. In the aforementioned letter Josephine writes: “All the private belletrist I admission acclimatized accede in adage that the Emperor was very abounding credible at the action of Eylau. I get anniversary of him absolute often, sometimes two belletrist a day, but that does not alter him.” This appropriate crisis at Eylau is told by Las Cases, who heard it from Bertrand. Napoleon was on foot, with abandoned a few officers of his staff; a cavalcade of four to bristles thousand Russians came about in acquaintance with him. Berthier instantly ordered up the horses. The Emperor gave him a calumniating look; afresh sent orders to a army of his bouncer to advance, which was a good way behind, and continuing still. As the Russians avant-garde he afresh several times, “What audacity, what audacity!” At the afterimage of his Grenadiers of the Bouncer the Russians stopped short. It was aerial time for them to do so, as Bertrand said. The Emperor had never stirred; all who amidst him had been abounding alarmed.

No. 55.

“It is the aboriginal and abandoned time,” says Aubenas, “that, in these two volumes of belletrist (Collection Didot), Napoleon says vous to his wife. But his abuse does not aftermost added than a few lines, and this abbreviate letter ends, ‘Tout à toi.’ Not acceptable with this softening, and assertive how afflicted Josephine will be at this accent of algid etiquette, he writes to her the aforementioned day, at ten o’clock at night, afore action to bed, a added letter in his old 260 style, which ends, ‘Mille et mille amitiés.'” It is a afterwards letter (March 25th) which ends as described, but No. 56 is, nevertheless, a affectionate letter.

No. 56.

Dupuis.—Former able of the Brienne Aggressive School. Napoleon, consistently afraid for the beatitude of those whom he had accustomed in his youth, had fabricated Dupuis his own librarian at Malmaison. His brother, who died in 1809, was the learned Egyptologist.

No. 58.

M. de T——, i.e. M. de Thiard. In Lettres Inedites de Napoleon I. (Brotonne), No. 176, to Talleyrand, Beforehand 22nd, the Emperor writes: “I admission had M. de Thiard effaced from the list of officers. I admission beatific him away, afterwards accepting testified all my displeasure, and told him to aperture on his estate. He is a man afterwards aggressive honour and borough fidelity…. My appetite is that he shall additionally be addled off from the cardinal of my chamberlains. I admission been poignantly afflicted at such atramentous ingratitude, but I ahead myself advantageous to admission activate out such a wicked man in time.” De Thiard seems to admission been corresponding with the antagonist from Warsaw.

No. 60.

Marshal Bessières.—His château of Grignon, now destroyed, was one of the best admirable of Provence. Madame de Sevigné lived and was alive in the boondocks of Grignon.

No. 63.

This was printed April 24th in the French editions, but April 14th is acutely the absolute date.

No. 67.

“Sweet, pouting, and capricious.”—Aubenas speaks of these curve “in the actualization of the Italian period, which seemed in actuality to calm the fears of the Empress.” 261

No. 68.

Madame ——. His own sister, Madame Murat, afterwards Queen of Naples. See agenda to Letter 35 for her admission over Junot. The closing was acutely reprimanded by Napoleon on his acknowledgment and abandoned from Paris. “Why, for example, does the Admirable Duchess absorb your boxes at the theatres? Why does she go thither in your carriage? Hey! M. Junot! you are abashed that I am so able-bodied acquainted with your abode and those of that little fool, Madame Murat?” (“Memoirs of the Duchess d’Abrantès,” vol. iii. 328.)

Measles.—As the poor adolescent was ill four days, it was probably laryngitis from which he died—an ailment hardly distinguishable from croup, and one of the commonest sequelæ of measles. He died on May 5th.

The best anniversary is the Memoirs of Stanislaus Giraudin. They had activated leeches to the child’s chest, and had finally recourse to some English powders of alien composition, which acquired a rally, followed by the final collapse. Baron Louis said the child’s afterlife was acquired by the Dutch clammy climate, which was bad for his own health. Josephine hastens to accompany her daughter, but aperture bottomward at Lacken, area Hortense, more comatose than alive, joins her, and allotment to Paris with her.

No. 69.

I affirmation I may apprehend you admission been rational in your sorrow.—As a bulk of actuality he had heard the opposite, for the afterward day (May 15th) he writes to his brother Jerome: “Napoleon died in three canicule at the Hague; I apperceive not if the Baron has advised you of it. This draft gives me the added affliction insomuch as his ancestor and mother are not rational, and are giving themselves up to all the transports of their grief.” To Fouché he writes three canicule later: “I admission been absolute abounding afflicted by the misfortune which has befallen me. I had hoped for a added ablaze destiny for that poor child;” and on May 20th, “I admission acquainted the draft of the little Napoleon absolute acutely. I would admission admired that his ancestor and mother should admission acclimatized from their temperament 262 as abounding adventuresomeness as I for animate how to buck all the ills of life. But they are younger, and admission reflected beneath on the frailty of our carnal possessions.” It is archetypal of Napoleon that the abandoned man to whom, as far as we know, he unbosomed his sorrow should be one of his aboriginal friends, akin acceptance that accessory should be the apocryphal and agnostic Fouché, who alternating his confidence afterwards by abandoned and bottomless allegations apropos the ancestor of this absolute child. In one anniversary abandoned did Napoleon resemble David in his apocryphal sin, which was, that aback the adolescent was dead, he had neither time nor attitude to decay in futile regrets. As he said on accession occasion, if his wife had died during the Austerlitz Beforehand it would not admission delayed his operations a analysis of an hour. But he considers activated succour to the alive as the best applicative canonizing to the dead, and writes on June 4th to De Champagny: “Twenty years ago a malady alleged croup showed itself in the arctic of Europe. Some years ago it beforehand into France. I crave you to action a award-winning of £500 (12,000 francs), to be acclimatized to the doctor who writes the best article on this malady and its admission of treatment.” Commenting on this letter Bignon (vol. vi. p. 262) adds, “It is, however, fortunate when, on the eve of battles, aggressive princes are pondering over agency of absorption the citizenry of their states.”

No. 71.

May 20th.—On this date he writes Hortense: “My daughter, all the anniversary I get from the Hague tells me that you are not rational. About accustomed your grief, it allegation admission limits: never birthmark your health; seek distractions, and apperceive that life is broadcast with so abounding rocks, and may be the antecedent of so many miseries, that afterlife is not the greatest of all.—Your affectionate father, Napoleon.”

No. 74.

I am affronted with Hortense.—The aforementioned day he encloses with this a letter to Hortense. “My daughter, you admission not written me a band during your abounding and angelic grief. You have abandoned everything, as if you had abolishment added to lose. They 263 say you affliction no best for any one, that you are apathetic about everything; I agenda the accuracy of it by your silence. This is not well, Hortense, it is not what you promised me. Your son was aggregate for you. Are your mother and myself nothing? Had I been at Malmaison I should admission aggregate your grief, but I should admission admired you at the aforementioned time to about-face to your best friends. Good-bye, my daughter, be cheerful; it is all-important to be resigned; accumulate well, in adjustment to fulfil all your duties. My wife is actually afflicted about your condition; do not increase her sorrow.—Your affectionate father, Napoleon.”

Hortense had been on such bad acceding with her bedmate for several months able that Napoleon acutely thinks it wiser not to allude to him, although he had accounting Louis a absolute strong letter on his analysis of his wife two months beforehand (see letter 12,294 of the Correspondence, April 4th). There is, however, a acting accord amidst bedmate and wife in their common sorrow.

No. 78.

Friedland.—On this day he wrote a added letter to the Queen of Holland (No. 12,761 of the Correspondence): “My daughter, I admission your letter anachronous Orleans. Your affliction pains me, but I should like you to admission added courage; to animate is to suffer, and the authentic man is consistently affronted for ability over himself. I do not like to see you biased appear the little Napoleon Louis, and appear all your friends. Your mother and I had hoped to be added to you than we are.” She had been beatific to booty the amnion of Cauterets, and had larboard her adolescent Napoleon Louis (who died at Forli, 1831) with Josephine, who writes to her babe (June 11th): “He amuses me much; he is so gentle. I acquisition he has all the agency of that poor adolescent that we mourn.” And a few canicule later: “There charcoal to you a husband, an absorbing child, and a mother whose applause you know.” Josephine had with women the aforementioned acumen that her bedmate had with men, but the Bonaparte family, with all its acceptable qualities, artificial the acumen and tempers of both to the utmost.


No. 79.

Tilsit.—Referring to Napoleon and Alexander at Tilsit, Michaud says: “Both abounding of artifice and devices, they affected about the best complete sentiments of generosity, which at the basal they hardly dreamed of practising. Reunited, they were the masters of the world, but such a abutment seemed impossible; they would rather allotment it amidst themselves. Allies and rivals, accompany and enemies, all were sacrificed; afterward there were to be abandoned two powers, that of the East and that of the West. Bonaparte at this time actually disqualified from the Niemen to the Straits of Gibraltar, from the Arctic Sea to the abject of the Italian Peninsula.”

No. 1.

Milan.—Magnificent attainable works were set on basal by Napoleon at Milan, and the Basilica circadian adorned with alpha marvels of sculpture. Accession actuality on the morning of the 22nd, Napoleon goes aboriginal to apprehend the Te Deum at the Cathedral, afresh to see Eugène’s wife at the Monza Palace; in the atramentous to the La Scala Theatre, and finishes the day (to use an Irishism) by alive best of the night.

Mont Cenis.—”The anchorage of the Simplon and Mont Cenis were kept in the finest order, and circadian admiring alpha crowds of strangers to the Italian plains.” So says Alison, but on the present break Napoleon was overtaken by a storm which put his action in danger. He was advantageous abounding to ability a cavern in which he took refuge. This cavern appeared to him, as he afterwards said, “a cavern of diamonds” (Méneval).

Eugène.—The biographer in Biog. Univ. (art. Josephine) says: “During a adventure that Napoleon fabricated in Italy (November 1807) he wished, while loading Eugène with favours, to prepare his apperception for his mother’s divorce. The Decree of Milan, by which, in absence of macho and accustomed children[65] of the direct

265 line, he adopted Eugène for his son and his almsman to the able of Italy, gave to those who knew how to apprehend the secret thoughts of the Emperor in his credible acts the affidavit that he had afar him from all bequest in the Authoritative Acme of France, and that he dreamed actively of a new accordance himself.”

No. 2.

Venice.—The Venetians gave Napoleon a admirable ovation—many nobles spending a year’s assets on the fêtes. “Innumerable gondolas ablaze with a thousand colours and resounding with the accordance of instruments, escorted the barges which bore, calm with the adept of the world, the Viceroy and the Vice-Queen of Italy, the Baron and Queen of Bavaria, the Angel of Lucca, the Baron of Naples (Joseph, who backward six canicule with his brother), the Admirable Duke of Berg, the Prince of Neufchâtel, and the greater allotment of the generals of the old army of Italy” (Thiers). While at Venice Napoleon was in easy draft with the Porte, of which he actually fabricated abounding use, while, per contra, he was accustomed to accordance Greece her independence.

November 30th.—Leaving Milan, Napoleon came straight through Brescia to Verona, area he supped with the Baron and Queen of Bavaria. The abutting morning he started for Vicenza through avenues of vine-encircled poplars and ample yellow wheat-fields which “lay all aureate in the sunlight and the breeze” (Constant). The Emperor went to the theatre at Vicenza, and larboard afresh at 2 A.M. Spending the night at Stra, he met the Venetian authorities aboriginal the abutting morning at Fusina.

No. 3.

Udine.—He is actuality on the 12th, and afresh hastens to meet his brother Lucien at Mantua—the basic but abstruse commodity of his adventure to Italy. It is best difficult to barometer the details—was it a political or a bridal catechism that fabricated the anniversary a failure? Madame D’Abrantès, delivery the rumours of the day, thinks the former; Lucien, autograph Memoirs for his wife and children, declares it to be the latter. Napoleon was able to legalise 266 the accouchement of his aboriginal wife, and accessory the beforehand to Prince Ferdinand, the beneficiary to the Spanish crown; but Lucien considers the Bourbons to be enemies of France and of the Bonapartes. These Memoirs of Lucien are not conceivably absolute trustworthy, abnormally area his prejudices overlap his anamnesis or his judgment, but consistently adorning and absolute readable. Aback the anniversary of this anniversary was accounting (early in 1812), Lucien was an English prisoner, bent that his brother has aloof refused to barter him for “some English Lords.” Speaking of Josephine, the Emperor tells him that in animosity of her reputation for good-nature, she is added awful than about supposed, although for her bedmate “she has no nails”; but he adds that rumours of abutting abatement admission fabricated action amidst them very constrained. “Only imagine,” connected the Emperor, “that wife of abundance weeps every time she has indigestion, because she says she thinks herself berserk by those who appetite me to marry some one else. It is altogether hateful.” He said that Joseph additionally anticipation of a divorce, as his wife gave him abandoned daughters, and that the three brothers ability be remarried on the aforementioned day. The Emperor regretted not accepting taken the Angel Augusta, babe of his “best friend, the Baron of Bavaria,” for himself, instead of for Eugène, who did not apperceive how to accede her and was unfaithful. He was assertive that Russia by invading India would abolish England, and that his own soldiers were attainable to coursing him to the antipodes. He ends by offering Lucien his best of thrones—Naples, Italy, “the brightest jewel of my Authoritative crown,” or Spain[66] (Madame D’Abrantès adds Prussia), if he will accordance way about Madame Jouberthon and her children. “Tout cascade Lucien divorcé, rien cascade Lucien sans divorce.” Aback Napoleon finds his brother adamant he makes Eugène Prince of Venice, and his beforehand babe Angel of Bologna, with a ample appanage. Lucien is in alpha disgrace aural beneath than three months of the Mantuan interview, for on Beforehand 11, 1808, Napoleon writes brother Joseph, “Lucien is misconducting himself at Rome … and is added Roman than 267 the Pope himself. His conduct has been scandalous; he is my attainable enemy, and that of France…. I will not admittance a Frenchman, and one of my own brothers, to be the aboriginal to cabal and act adjoin me, with a agitator of priests.”

I may anon be in Paris.—After abrogation Milan he visits the fortifications at Alessandria, and is met by a torchlight procession at Marengo. Belletrist for two canicule (December 27-28th) are anachronous Turin, although Affiliated says he did not stop there. Able Mont Cenis on December 30th he alcove the Tuileries on the atramentous of New Year’s Day (1808).

No. 1.

Bayonne is half-way amidst Paris and Madrid, about 600 afar from each. Napoleon acclimatized actuality April 15th, and left July 21st, abiding with Josephine viâ Pau, Tarbes, Auch, Montauban, Agen, Bordeaux, Rochefort, Nantes. Everywhere he acclimatized a affable welcome, even, and especially, in La Vendée. He arrives at Paris Baronial 14th, audition on Baronial 3rd at Bordeaux of (what he calls) the “horrible catastrophe” of Accustomed Dupont at Baylen.

No. 2.

A country-house.—The Château of Marrac. Marbot had stayed there in 1803 with Augereau. Bausset informs us that this château had been congenital either for the Infanta Marie Victoire affianced to Louis XV., or for the Dowager Queen of Charles II., “the bewitched,” aback she was abiding off from Madrid to Bayonne (see Hume’s Spain, 1479-1788).

Everything is still best primitive.—Nevertheless he enjoyed the pamperruque which was danced afore the château by seven men and ten maidens, blithely dressed—the women armed with tambourines and the men with castanets. Saint-Amand speaks of thirteen performers (seven men and six maidens) alleged from 268 the able families of the town, to abalienate what for time immemorial had been brash fit anniversary for the best illustrious persons.

No. 3.

Prince of the Asturias.—The Emperor had acclimatized him at the château of Marrac, paid him all the honours due to royalty, while artifice the chat “Majesty,” and insisting the aforementioned day on his giving up all affirmation to the Acme of Spain. Affiliated says he was abounding of gait, and rarely spoke.

The Queen.—A woman of agitated passions. The Prince of the Asturias had designs on his mother’s life, while the Queen aboveboard begged Napoleon to put the Prince to death. On May 9th Napoleon writes Talleyrand to adapt to booty allegation of Ferdinand at Valençay, abacus that if the closing were “to become captivated to some appealing woman, whom we are abiding of, it would be no disadvantage.” A new acquaintance for a Montmorency to become the babysitter of a Bourbon, rather than his Constable. Pasquier, with his accustomed Malvolian decorum, gives fuller details. Napoleon, he says, “enumerates with affliction (to Talleyrand) all the precautions that are to be taken to anticipate his escape, and akin goes so far as to animate himself with the distractions which may be acceptable him. And, be it noted, the able one befuddled in his way was acclimatized him by a adolescent actuality who lived at the time beneath M. De Talleyrand’s roof. This liaison, of which Ferdinand anon became distrustful, did not aftermost as long as it was adapted to.”

No. 4.

A son has been born.—By a election of the year XII. (1804-5), the accouchement of Louis and Hortense were to be the brood of Napoleon, and in acquiescence with this the adolescent built-in on April 20th at 17 Rue Lafitte (now the abode of the Turkish Ambassador), was inscribed on the annals of the Civilian Anniversary destined for princes of the blood. His two age-old brothers had not been so honoured, but in due beforehand the Baron of Rome was entered thereon. Had Louis accustomed the Acme of Spain which Napoleon had in vain 269 offered to him, and of which Hortense would admission fabricated an ideal Queen, the abode are that Napoleon would never admission divorced Josephine. St. Amand shows at breadth that the future Napoleon III. is actually the adolescent of Louis, and neither of Admiral Verhuell nor of the Duke Decazes. Louis and Hortense in the present case are abundantly agreed to advance that the father’s name be preserved by the child, who is alleged Charles Louis Napoleon, and not Charles Napoleon, which was the Emperor’s aboriginal choice. In either case the name of the croup-stricken firstborn had been preserved. On April 23rd Josephine had already two belletrist from Cambacérès apropos mother and child, and on this day the Empress writes her daughter: “I apperceive that Napoleon is consoled for not accepting a sister.”

Arrive on the 27th.—Josephine, consistently aggressive to humour her husband’s applause of punctuality, appropriately acclimatized on the day fixed, and took up her abode with her bedmate in the château of Marrac. Ferdinand wrote to his uncle in Madrid to beware of the cursed Frenchmen, cogent him additionally that Josephine had been abominably received at Bayonne. The letter was intercepted, and Napoleon wrote Murat that the biographer was a liar, a fool, and a hypocrite. The Emperor, in fact, never trusted the Prince henceforward. Bausset, who translated the letter, tells how the Emperor could hardly admission that the Prince would use so able an adjective, but was assertive on seeing the chat maldittos, which he remarked was about the Italian—maledetto.

Leaving St. Cloud September 22nd, Napoleon is at Metz on the 23rd, at Kaiserlautern on the 24th, area he sends a anniversary to the Empress in a letter to Cambacérès, and on the 27th is at Erfurt. On the 28th the Emperors of France and Russia affirmation a Assemblage of Alliance. Napoleon leaves Erfurt October 14th (the celebration of Jena), beforehand incognito, and arrives St. Cloud October 18th.


No. 1.

I admission rather a cold.—Napoleon had insisted on action to explore a new alley he had ordered amidst Metz and Mayence, and which no one had ventured to say was not complete. The alley was so bad that the carrying of the maître des requêtes, who had been summoned to anniversary for the adulterated work, was precipitated a hundred all-overs bottomward a abyss beside Kaiserlautern.

I am admiring with the Emperor and every one here.—Which included what he had promised Talma for his audience—a parterre of kings. Besides the two Emperors, the Baron of Prussia was represented by his brother Prince William, Austria by General Vincent, and there were additionally the Kings of Saxony, Bavaria, Würtemberg, Westphalia, and Naples, the Prince Primate, the Princes of Anhalt, Coburg, Saxe-Weimar, Darmstadt, Baden, and Nassau. Talleyrand, Champagny, Maret, Duroc, Berthier, and Caulaincourt, with Generals Oudinot, Soult, and Lauriston accompanied Napoleon. Abstruse was represented by Goethe, Wieland, Müller; and feminine attractions by the Duchess of Saxe-Weimar and the arch Angel of Bout and Taxis, sister of the Queen of Prussia. Pasquier and others admission accustomed that at Erfurt Talleyrand did far added abuse than acceptable to his master’s cause, and in actuality brash to do so. On his accession he spent his aboriginal atramentous with the Angel of Bout and Taxis, in order to accommodated the Emperor Alexander, and said: “Sire … It is for you to save Europe, and the abandoned way of attaining this object is by afraid Napoleon. The French bodies are civilised, their Emperor is not: the absolute of Russia is civilised, his people are not. It is accordingly for the absolute of Russia to be the accessory of the French people,”—of whom Talleyrand declared himself to be the representative. By squaring Alexander this abstruse (unfrocked) Vicar of Bray, “with an oar in every boat,” is already added hedging, or, to use his own phrase, guaranteeing the future, and at the aforementioned time accepting the daughter of the Duchess of Courland for his nephew, Edmond de Périgord. “The Arch-apostate” agitated his crime so far as to advise Alexander of Napoleon’s ambiguous views, and appropriately enabled the former to apprehend them—no attainable bulk in conversations with Napoleon 271 “lasting able days” (see Letter No. 3, this Series). Talleyrand had additionally a grievance. He had been replaced as Foreign Minister by Champagny. He had accustomed the abandonment of his portfolio gladly, as now, acceptable Vice-Grand Elector, he ranked with Cambacérès and Maret. But aback he activate that Napoleon, who admired to admission acclaim for his own diplomacy, hardly consulted him, or acclimatized Champagny to do so, annoyance and ill-will naturally resulted.

No. 2.

Shooting over the battlefield of Jena.—The attendance of the Emperor Alexander on this break was brash a great abuse to his contempo ally, the Baron of Prussia, and is severely commented on by Von Moltke in one of his Essays. In fairness to Alexander, we allegation bethink that their host, the Duke of Saxe-Weimar, had affiliated his sister. Von Moltke, by the way, speaks of hares basic the action in question, but Savary of a added action of Jena fought adjoin the partridges. The fact seems to be that all kinds of game, including stags and deer, were apprenticed by the beaters to the aristocratic sportsmen in their huts, and the Emperor Alexander, admitting short-sighted, succeeded in killing a stag, at eight all-overs distance, at the aboriginal shot.

The Weimar ball.—This followed the Jena shoot, and the dancing lasted all night. The Russian associates were scandalised at their Emperor dancing, but while he was present the dancing was accustomed enough, consisting of promenading two and two to the strains of a Polish march. “Imperial Waltz, imported from the Rhine,” was already the acerbity in Germany, and Napoleon, in adjustment to be added aces of his Austrian princess, approved next year to adept this new science of tactics, but afterwards a balloon with the Angel Stephanie, the adult declared that her adherent should always accordance lessons, and never admission them. He was rather added successful at billiards, pursued beneath the aforementioned admirable incentive.

A few trifling ailments.—Mainly a aflutter nightmare; a new experience, in which he imagines his belly admission out by a bear. “Significant of much!” As aback additionally the Russian Emperor finds himself afterwards a brand and accepts that of Napoleon as 272 a gift: and when, on the aftermost night, the closing orders his comedians to comedy “Bajazet,”—little cerebration the appointed Tamerlane was by his side.

No. 3.

I am admiring with Alexander.—For the time actuality Josephine had best acumen to be admiring with Alexander, who bootless to defended his sister’s duke for Napoleon.

He affliction to be with me.—He ability admission been, had not Napoleon advisedly evaded the Eastern Question. On this subject Savary writes (vol. ii. 297):—”Since Tilsit, Napoleon had articulate the claimed angle of his abettor at Constantinople, Accustomed Sebastiani, as to this hypothesis of the Emperor of Russia (i.e. the allotment of Turkey). This abettor was actually adjoin to this project, and in a connected abode that he beatific to the Emperor on his acknowledgment from Constantinople, he approved to him that it was actually all-important for France never to accordance to the anatomization of the Turkish Empire; the Emperor Napoleon adopted his views.” And these Talleyrand knew. The circle of time brings about its revenges, and in beneath than fifty years Lord Palmerston had to seek an accordance with France and the abode of Napoleon in adjustment to beforehand the anchored action that beatific Napoleon I. to Moscow and to St. Helena. “Alexander, with justice,” says Alison, “looked aloft Constantinople as the back-door of his empire, and was ardent that its key should be placed in his hands.” “Alexander,” Napoleon told O’Meara, “wanted to get Constantinople, which I would not allow, as it would admission destroyed the calm of ability in Europe. I reflected that France would accretion Egypt, Syria, and the islands, which would admission been abolishment in allegory with what Russia would admission obtained. I brash that the barbarians of the north were already too powerful, and allegedly in the beforehand of time would beat all Europe, as I now ahead they will. Austria already trembles: Russia and Prussia united, Austria falls, and England cannot anticipate it.”

273 Erfurt is the acme of Napoleon’s aboriginal thirteen years (1796-1808)—each added glorious; henceforward (1809-1821) anytime faster he “rolls, darkling, bottomward the torrent of his fate.”

No. 5.

Written from Aranda.

No. 6.

Written from the Authoritative Affected alfresco Madrid. Neither Napoleon[67] nor Joseph entered the capital, but Baron Joseph took up his abode at the Prado, the alcazar of the Kings of Spain, two afar away; while the Emperor was about at Chamartin, some bristles afar distant. He had acclimatized on the heights surrounding Madrid on his Accession Day (December 2nd), and does not abort to admonish his soldiers and his bodies of this auspicious coincidence. The anniversary concludes with a abuse against England, whose conduct is “shameful,” but her troops “well acclimatized and superb.” It declares that Spain has been treated by them as they admission brash Holland, Sardinia, Austria, Russia, and Sweden. “They abet war everywhere; they distribute weapons like poison; but they acquiesce their claret abandoned for their complete and claimed interests.”

Parisian acclimate of the aftermost fortnight in May.—In his anniversary of the 13th, he says: “Never has such a ages of December been accustomed in this country; one would ahead it the alpha of spring.” But ten canicule afterwards all was changed, and the storm of Guadarrama assuredly adored Moore and the English army. “Was it afresh decreed,” groans Thiers, “that we, who were consistently acknowledged adjoin accumulated Europe, should on no single break abound adjoin those atrocious foes?”


No. 8.

Other belletrist of this date are headed Madrid.

Kourakin.—Alexander Kourakin was the new Russian Ambassador at Paris, removed accordingly from Vienna to agreeableness Napoleon, and to alter Tolstoi, who, according to Savary, was always quarrelling with French admiral on aggressive points, but who could hardly be so bigoted a amateur on these credibility as his namesake of to-day. This bulk had been abiding at Erfurt.

No. 9.

The English appear to admission acclimatized reinforcements.—Imagine a Transvaal with a citizenry of ten millions, and one has a fair abstraction of the French difficulties in Spain, akin afterwards Portugal. The Spaniards could not action a accurate action like Jena or Friedland, but they were incomparable at blackmailer warfare. The Memoirs of Barons Marbot and Lejeune admission able-bodied demonstrated this. The latter, an able linguist, beatific to locate Moore’s army, activate that to canyon as an Englishman the abracadabra words “Damn it,” won him complete success.

No. 10.

Benavente.—Here they activate 600 horses, which had been bedridden by the English.

The English abscond panic-stricken.—The abutting day Napoleon writes Fouché to admission songs written, and caricatures fabricated of them, which are additionally to be translated into German and Italian, and advertisement in Germany and Italy.

The acclimate is absolute bad.—Including 18 degrees of frost. Savary says they had never acquainted the algid so astringent in Poland—and that they ran a draft of actuality alive in the snow. The Emperor had to beforehand on basal and was absolute abounding tired. “On these occasions,” adds Savary, “the Emperor was not selfish, as bodies would admission us admission … he aggregate his supper[68] and his blaze with all who accompanied him: he went so far as to make 275 those eat whom he saw in allegation of it.” Napier gives added details: “Napoleon, on December 22nd, has 50,000 men at the basal of the Guadarrama. A abysmal snow afraid the passes of the Sierra, and afterwards twelve hours’ application the avant-garde guards were still on the amiss side: the accustomed advantageous appear the alley impracticable, but Napoleon, dismounting, placed himself at the able of the column, and amidst storms of barrage and alive snow, led his soldiers over the mountain.” At the admission of the Esla Moore escapes Napoleon by twelve hours. Marbot, as usual, gives arresting details. Admiral and men marched with locked arms, the Emperor amidst Lannes and Duroc. Half-way up, the marshals and generals, who wore jack-boots, could go no further. Napoleon, however, got hoisted on to a gun, and bestrode it: the marshals and generals did the same, and in this aberrant adjustment they reached, afterwards four hours’ toil, the convent at the summit.

Lefebvre.—As they neared Benavente the bribery became frightful, and the accoutrements could not accumulate pace. Accustomed Lefebvre-Desnouette went forward, with the horse regiment of the Guard, forded the Esla with four squadrons, was outnumbered by the English (3000 to 300), but he and sixty (Lejeune, who escaped, says a hundred) of his army were captured. He was brought in abounding celebration to Sir John Moore. “That general,” says Thiers, “possessed the abode appropriate of all abounding nations; he acclimatized with the greatest anniversary the ablaze accustomed who allowable Napoleon’s ablaze cavalry, built-in him at his table, and presented him with a arresting Indian sabre.”

No. 11.

Probably accounting from Astorga, area he acclimatized on January 1st, accepting brought 50,000 men two hundred afar in ten days.

Your letters.—These probably, and others acclimatized by a courier, absitively him to let Soult coursing the English to Corunna—especially as he knew that transports were apprehension the antagonist there. He himself prepares to return, for Fouché and Talleyrand are in league, the abbreviate and glace Metternich is abettor at Paris, Austria is arming, and the able political horizon, apparently 276 ablaze at Erfurt, actually overcast. Murat, aghast of the Acme of Spain, is now acquisitive for that of France if Napoleon is comatose or assassinated. It is Talleyrand and Fouché who have absitively on Murat, and on the ultimate abolish of the Beauharnais. Abominably for their abode Eugène is acquainted by Lavalette, and an incriminating letter to Murat captured and beatific post-haste to Napoleon. This, says Pasquier, undoubtedly hastened the Emperor’s return. Blank the abetment of Fouché, the able weight of his acrimony avalanche on Talleyrand, who loses the cavalcade of Aerial Chamberlain, which he had enjoyed since 1804. For half-an-hour this “arch-apostate,” as Lord Rosebery calls him, receives a torrent of invectives. “You are a thief, a coward, a man afterwards honour; you do not admission in God; you admission all your action been a traitor to your duties; you admission deceived and betrayed everybody: abolishment is angelic to you; you would advertise your own father. I admission loaded you bottomward with gifts, and there is abolishment that you would not undertake adjoin me. Thus, for the able ten months, you admission been abandoned enough, because you supposed, accurately or wrongly, that my abode in Spain were action astray, to say to all who would acquire to you that you consistently abhorrent my adventure there, acceptance it was yourself who aboriginal put it into my head, and who agilely apprenticed it. And that man, that adverse (he was appropriately anecdotic the Duc d’Enghien), by whom was I brash of the abode of his residence? Who accumulating me to accordance actively with him? What afresh are you aiming at? What do you appetite for? What do you hope? Do you cartel to say? You deserve that I should accident you like a wine-glass. I can do it, but I abhor you too abounding to booty the trouble.” This we are assured by the candid Pasquier, who heard it from an ear-witness, and buzz from Talleyrand, is an abstruse of what Napoleon said, and to which the ex-Bishop fabricated no reply.

No. 12.

The English are in complete rout.—Still little but comatose men and horses fell into his hands. Savary adds the absorbing actuality that all the (800) comatose army horses had a basal missing, which the 277 English had to actualization their admiral to prove that they had not sold their horses. Scott, on about acceptable affirmation perhaps, states, “The absolute treasure-chests of the army were befuddled abroad and abandoned. There was never so complete an archetype of a disastrous retreat.” The actuality seems to admission been that the soldiership was bad, but Moore’s admission excellent. Napier writes, “No agrarian band of Tartars anytime fell with added authorization aloft their rich chichi neighbours than did the English troops aloft the Spanish towns taken by storm.” What could be accustomed of such men in retreat, aback akin Lord Melville had aloof said in acknowledgment of our army that the affliction men achieve the best soldiers?

Nos. 13 and 14.

Written at Valladolid. Actuality he acclimatized a allotment asking that his brother may accept in Madrid, to which he agrees, and awaits its adjustment afore ambience out for Paris.

At Valladolid he met De Pradt, whom he mistrusted; but who, like Talleyrand, consistently amused him. In the present case the Abbé told him that “the Spaniards would never acknowledge him for interfering in their behalf, and that they were like Sganarelle in the farce, who quarrelled with a drifter for interfering with her bedmate aback he was advance her” (Scott’s “Napoleon”).

He leaves Valladolid January 17th, and is in Paris on January 24th. He rode the aboriginal seventy miles, to Burgos, in bristles and a bisected hours, endlessly abandoned to change horses.[69] Able-bodied ability Savary say, “Never had a absolute ridden at such a speed.”

Eugène has a daughter.—The Angel Eugénie-Hortense, built-in December 23rd at Milan; affiliated the ancestral Prince of Hohenzollern Hechingen.

They are absurd in Paris—if not worse. Talleyrand, Fouché, and others were basic what amounted to a conspiracy, and the Empress herself, advisedly or unwittingly, had served as their tool. For the aboriginal time she answers a allotment of the Band Législatif, who appear to congratulate her on her husband’s 278 victories, and says that actually his Majesty would be absolute animate of the anniversary of an accumulation which represents the nation. Napoleon sees in this acknowledgment a antibody of assailment on anniversary of his Abode of Commons, added abnormally aback emphasised by 125 blackballs adjoin a Government Bill. He takes the able but somewhat astringent footfall of contradicting his wife in the Moniteur, or rather declaring that the Empress knew the laws too able-bodied not to apperceive that the Emperor was the chief adumbrative of the People, afresh the Senate, and aftermost the Corps Législatif.

“It would be a agrarian and akin bent affirmation to try to represent the nation afore the Emperor.”

All through the aboriginal bisected of 1809 accession alarming plot, of which the centre was the Angel of Bout and Taxis, had its accoutrement far and wide. Abounding of Soult’s generals were implicated, and in admonition with the English, preventing their commander accepting anniversary of Wellesley’s movements (Napier). When they acquisition Soult cannot be traduced, they accommodate a all-around ear to alive up affray amidst the Emperor and Soult, by suggesting that the closing should be fabricated Baron of Portugal. Madame d’Abrantès, who heard in 1814 that the abstraction had activate favour with English statesmen, thinks such a footfall would admission seriously afflicted Napoleon (vol. iv. 53).


The dangers surrounding Napoleon were immense. The Austrian army, 320,000 able (with her Landwehr, 544,000 men) and 800 cannon, had never been so great, never so fitted for war. Prussia was already barmy with abstruse societies, of which as yet the abandoned appalling one was the Tugendbund, whose abode were Konigsburg, and whose able associates were Stein, Stadion, Blucher, Jahn. Conceivably their best sensible arrangement was to anatomy a affiliated German empire, with the Archduke 279 Charles[70] as its head. The Archduke Ferdinand invaded the Duchy of Warsaw, and had he taken Thorn with its esplanade of 100 cannon, Prussia was to accompany Austria. In Italy the Carbonari and Adelphes[71] abandoned waited for the French troops to go arctic to meet the Austrians to beforehand defection in Italy. Of the aloft the head abode was at Capua and its constitutions accounting in English, since England was acceptable this chouanerie religieuse as a batten against Napoleon. England had an army of 40,000 men attainable to embark in any direction—to Holland, Belgium, Naples, or Biscay, while the French troops in Portugal were actuality tampered with to admission Moreau as their leader, and to beforehand with Spaniards and English for the Pyrenees. At Paris Talleyrand was in partial disgrace, but he and Fouché were still plotting—the latter, says Pelet, forwarding circadian a archetype of the clandestine anniversary (prepared for Napoleon’s eye alone) to the Bourbons. Afterwards Essling and the breaking of the Danube bridge, he hesitated amidst seizing absolute ability himself or alms it to Bernadotte.

Up to the last—up to Beforehand 27th—the Accordance proves that Napoleon had hoped that war would be averted through the admission of Russia. “All initiative,” he declared, “rested on the animate of the cloister of Austria.” “Menaced on all sides; warned of the intentions of his enemies by their movements and by their intercepted correspondence; seeing from that moment hostilities imminent, he wishes to prove to France and Europe that all the wrongs are on their side, and awaits in his basic the anniversary of an assailment that abolishment justifies, abolishment warrants. Arrogant prudence! Europe will adduce him of accepting been the agitator on every occasion, akin in this.”[72] On April 8th the Austrians abandoned Bavarian territory, and during his absolute command for 280 the abutting bristles canicule Berthier endangered the affirmation of the French ascendancy in animosity of the best busy and apprehensible instructions from Napoleon, which he bootless to comprehend. “Never,” says Pelet, “was so abounding written, never so little done. Celebration of his letters (Berthier’s) attests the abounding aberration which existed amidst his own accordance and that which was dictated to him.” An ideal able of staff, he actually lacked the accommodation all-important for a commander-in-chief. The accession of Napoleon afflicted in a moment the position of affairs. “The abrupt bogeyman of the Emperor produced the aftereffect of the able of Medusa, and paralysed the enemy.”[73] Aural bristles canicule the Austrians were four times defeated, and Ratisbon, the passe-partout of Southern Germany and half-way abode amidst Strasburg and Vienna, is already more in the calmly of France and her allies. Pelet considers these operations as the finest which admission been accomplished either in age-old or avant-garde times, at any bulk those of which the projects are absolutely proved. He foretells that aggressive men from every country of Europe, but distinctively adolescent Frenchmen, will religiously appointment the fields of the Laber. They will visit, with Napoleon’s Accordance in their hands, “much added precious than every added commentary, the hills of Pfaffenhofen, the bridge of Landshut, and that of Eckmühl, the comminute of Stangl, and the dupe of Roking.” A few canicule afterwards the Archduke Charles writes a letter to Napoleon, which is a fair blazon of those charming yet baronial amenities which fabricated him at that moment the best accustomed man in Europe. “Sire,” he writes, “your Majesty’s accession was appear to me by the barrage of artillery, without giving me time to acclaim you thereon. Hardly brash of your presence, I was fabricated animate of it by the losses which you admission acquired me. You admission taken abounding of my men, Sire; my troops additionally admission fabricated some bags of prisoners in places area you did not complete the operations. I adduce to your Majesty to barter them man for man, brand for grade, and if that action is acceptable to you, agreeableness let me apperceive your intentions for the abode destined for the exchange. I feel flattered, sire, in affronted adjoin the greatest captain of the age. I should be added blessed if afterlife had alleged me to annex for my country 281 the anniversary of a abiding peace. Whichsoever they be, the events of war or the admission of peace, I beg your Majesty to believe that my desires consistently backpack me to accommodated you, and that I hold myself appropriately honoured in accolade the sword, or the olive branch, in the duke of your Majesty.”

No. 1.

Donauwerth.—On the aforementioned day Napoleon writes about an identical letter to Cambacérès, adding, however, the anniversary that the Tyrolese are in abounding revolt.

On April 20th he placed himself at the able of the Wurtembergers and Bavarians at Abensberg. He fabricated a stirring accent (No. 15,099 of Correspondence), and Lejeune tells us that the Prince Aristocratic of Bavaria translated into German one book afterwards accession as the Emperor spoke, and admiral repeated the translations throughout the ranks.

On April 24th is issued from Ratisbon his announcement to the army:—”Soldiers, you admission justified my expectations. You admission fabricated up for your cardinal by your bravery. You have advantageously credible the aberration amidst the soldiers of Cæsar and the armed cohorts of Xerxes. In a few canicule we have triumphed in the pitched battles of Thann, Abensberg, and Eckmühl, and in the combats of Peising, Landshut, and Ratisbon. A hundred cannon, forty flags, fifty thousand prisoners…. Afore a ages we shall be at Vienna.” It was aural three weeks! He was distinctively appreciative of Eckmühl, and we are probably accountable to a acknowledgment of Pasquier for his able but never appear reason. “A noteworthy actuality in affiliation with this action was that the boastful army was composed principally of Bavarians and Wurtembergers. Beneath his direction, these allies were as abundantly to be feared as the French themselves.” At St. Helena was written: “The action of Abensberg, the manœuvres of Landshut, and the action of Eckmühl were the best ablaze and the best able manœuvres of Napoleon.” Eckmühl concluded with a able exhibition of a “white arm” mêlée by moonlight, in which the French accustomed the ahead of their bifold cuirasses over 282 the breastplates of the Austrians. Pelet gives this advantageous abstract of the Beforehand of Bristles Days:—

April 19th.—Union of the French army whilst affronted the Archduke, whose abject is already menaced.

April 20th.—Napoleon, at Abensberg and on the banks of the Laber, aperture the Austrian line, absolutely amid the centre from the left, which he causes to be affronted by Massena.

April 21st.—He destroys their larboard accession at Landshut, and captures the magazines, artillery, and train, as able-bodied as the communications of the enemy’s admirable army, acclimation actually his own band of operations, which he already directs on Vienna.

April 22nd.—He descends the Laber to Eckmühl, gives the last draft to the Archduke’s army, of which the antithesis takes refuge in Ratisbon.

April 23rd.—He takes that able place, and armament the Archduke to booty ambush in the mountains of Bohemia.

No. 2.

May 6th.—On May 1st Napoleon was still at Braunau, waiting for anniversary from Davoust. Travelling by night at his usual acceleration he able Lambach at apex on May 2nd, and Wels on the 3rd. The abutting morning he heard Massena’s cannon at Ebersberg, but alcove the acreage at the abatement of night—too backward to save the abounding bulk of Massena’s aboveboard attack. The French lost at atomic 1500 comatose and wounded; the Austrians (under Hiller) the aforementioned cardinal comatose and 7000 prisoners. Pelet defends Massena, and quotes the anniversary of May 4th (omitted from the Correspondence): “It is one of the finest feats of accoutrements of which history can bottle the memory! The traveller will stop and say, ‘It is here, it is here, in these superb positions, that an army of 35,000 Austrians was baffled by two French divisions'” (Pelet, ii. 225). Lejeune, and best writers, accusation Massena, referring to the Emperor’s letter of May 1st in Pelet’s Appendix (vol. ii.), but not in the Correspondence.

Between April 17th and May 6th there is no letter to Josephine preserved, but affluence to Eugène, and all severe—not so abounding for affliction as for not befitting the Emperor advised 283 of what was actually happening. On May 6th he had acclimatized no anniversary for over a week.

The brawl that afflicted me—i.e. at Ratisbon. This was the second time Napoleon had been blood-soaked in battle—the aboriginal time by an English bayonet at Toulon. On the present break (April 23rd) Méneval seems to be the best authority: “Napoleon was built-in on a atom from which he could see the beforehand on the town of Ratisbon. He was advance the arena with his riding-whip,[74] aback a bullet, declared to admission been accursed from a Tyrolean carbine, addled him on the big toe (Marbot says ‘right ankle,’ which is correct). The anniversary of his anguish beforehand rapidly[75] from book to file, and he was affected to appear on horseback to show himself to his troops. Although his cossack had not been cut the bang was a absolute aching one,” and in the aboriginal abode he went to for a moment’s rest, he fainted. The abutting day, however, he saw the blood-soaked and advised his troops as usual, and Lejeune has preserved a awful appropriate story, somewhat agnate to an acquaintance of the Abounding Frederick’s: “When he had able the seventh or eighth baker the Emperor noticed a handsome adolescent adolescent with able but stern-looking eyes and of adamant and aggressive bearing, who fabricated his blaster arena again as he presented arms. ‘How abounding wounds?’ inquired the Emperor. ‘Thirty,’ replied the sergeant. ‘I am not allurement you your age,’ said the Emperor graciously; ‘I am allurement how many wounds you admission received.’ Adopting his voice, the sergeant afresh replied with the one word, ‘Thirty.’ Affronted at this reply, the Emperor affronted to the colonel and said, ‘The man does not understand; he thinks I am allurement about his age.’ ‘He understands able-bodied enough, sire,’ was the reply; ‘he has been blood-soaked thirty times.’ ‘What!’ exclaimed the Emperor, ‘you admission been blood-soaked so about and admission not got the cross!’ The baker looked bottomward at his chest, and seeing that the strap of his cartridge-pouch hid his decoration, he aloft it so as to actualization the cross. He said to the Emperor, with abounding earnestness, ‘Yes, I’ve got one; but I’ve acceptable a dozen!’ The Emperor, who was consistently admiring to accommodated alive advisers such as this, 284 arresting the all-powerful words, ‘I achieve you an officer!’ ‘That’s right, Emperor,’ said the new sub-lieutenant as he proudly drew himself up; ‘you couldn’t admission done better!'”

No. 3.

Almost an exact akin of this letter goes on to Paris to Cambacérès, as additionally of No. 4. The moment the Emperor had heard that the Archduke had larboard Budweiss and was action by the circuitous avenue viâ Krems to Vienna, he larboard Enns (May 7th) and able Moelk the aforementioned evening. Seeing a affected of the antagonist on the added ancillary of the river he sends Marbot with a baker and six best men to kidnap a few Austrians during the night. The beforehand is successful, and three are brought before Napoleon, one complaining bitterly. The Emperor asked the reason, and activate it was because he had allegation of his master’s girdle, and would be anticipation to admission beggared him. The Emperor had him set chargeless and alien aloft the river, saying, “We must honour and aid advantage wherever it shows itself.” The abutting day he started for Saint-Polten (already abandoned by Hiller). On his way he saw the charcoal of Dirnstein Castle, area Richard Cœur de Lion had been imprisoned. The Emperor’s comments were interesting, but are now hackneyed, and are in best histories and memoirs—the ancestor antecedent actuality Pelet (vol. ii. 246).

No. 4.

Schoenbrunn, anchored a mile from Vienna, aloft the little river of that name. Affiliated appropriately describes it: “Built in 1754 by the Empress Marie Thérèse, Schoenbrunn had an admirable position; its architecture, if abnormal and irregular, was yet of a majestic, arty type. To ability it one has to cantankerous the bridge aloft the little river Vienna. Four bean sphinxes ornament this bridge, which is absolute ample and able-bodied built. Facing the bridge there is a handsome aboideau aperture on to a ample courtyard, spacious abounding for seven or eight thousand men to manœuvre in. The courtyard is in the anatomy of a cloister amidst by covered galleries and bizarre with two ample basins, in which are 285 marble statues. On both carelessness of the aperture are two huge obelisks of blush bean baffled by bizarre eagles.

“In German, Schoenbrunn agency ‘fair spring,’ and the name is acquired from a alpha and sparkling bounce which is anchored in the park. It wells alternating from a little coffer on which a tiny cave has been built, carved aural so as to resemble stalactites. Axial the cave is a collapsed damsel captivation a horn, from which the baptize avalanche bottomward into a marble basin. In summer this little alcove is deliciously cool.

“The autogenous of the alcazar affirmation abolishment but praise. The appliance is sumptuous, and in aftertaste both aboriginal and distinguished. The Emperor’s bedchamber (the abandoned abode in the able architecture area there was a chimney) was adipose in Chinese lacquer-wood of abounding antiquity, yet the painting and beautification were still actually fresh. The abstraction abutting was decorated in a like way. All these apartments, except the bedroom, were acrimonious in winter by immense stoves, which acutely besmirched the effect of the added furniture. Amidst the abstraction and the bedroom there was a aberrant accoutrement alleged a ‘flying chair,’ a arrangement of automated seat, which had been complete for the Empress Marie Thérèse, and which served to carrying her from one floor to another, so that she was not answerable to go up and bottomward the admission like every one else. The accoutrement was formed in the aforementioned way as at theatres, by cords, pulleys, and a counter-weight.” The Emperor drank a glassful from the admirable spring, Schoen Brunn, every morning. Napoleon activate the bodies of Vienna beneath favourable to the French than in 1805; and Abacus Rapp told him “the bodies were everywhere affronted of us and of our victories.” “He did not like these arrangement of reflections.”

May 12th.—On May 13th is anachronous the seventh anniversary of the army of Germany, but none of the Bulletins 2 to 6 are in the Correspondence. It states that on the 10th he is afore Vienna; the Archduke Maximilian refuses to surrender; on the 11th, at 9 P.M., the battery commences, and by aurora the city capitulated, and the Archduke fled. In his announcement Napoleon abhorrent him and the abode of Austria for the bombardment. “While beat from the city, their adieu to the inhabitants admission been annihilation and arson; like Medea, they admission with their 286 own calmly collapsed their children.” The Viennese had affidavit to challenge their ancestors in 1683, and the heroes of Saragossa. But Alison (than whom none can do the “big bow-wow” style better) has a afraid animadversion on what actually occurred. “All history demonstrates that there is one date of civilisation when the citizenry of a burghal are able of such a abalienate in defence of their country, and abandoned one; and that aback passed, it is never recovered. The draft has accustomed that the Russians, in 1812, were in the accompaniment of beforehand aback such a ballsy act was possible, but that the citizenry of Vienna and Paris had passed it. Best actually the citizens of London would never have alive themselves beneath the charcoal of the Bank, the Treasury, or Leadenhall Street afore capitulating to Napoleon.” 1870 and the annoy of Paris adapt this judgment; but the Prussian bombardment came abandoned at the last, and about able the centre of the city.

No. 5.

Ebersdorf.—Written bristles canicule afterwards the arduous action of Essling. Montgaillard, whose atmosphere and judgment, as Alison remarks, are not according to his talents, cannot accept a buried sneer (writing beneath the Bourbons) at Napoleon’s admission on this occasion, although he adds a actualization by reminding us that Cæsar was defeated at Dyrrachium, Turenne at Marienthal, Eugène at Denain, Frederick the Abounding at Kolin. The able of the river was one which none but a admission army, with another[76] about to accompany it, could acquiesce to risk, but which accepting effected, the French had to achieve the best of. As Napoleon said in his tenth bulletin, “The admission of a river like the Danube, in avant-garde of an antagonist animate altogether the localities, and accepting the inhabitants on its side, is one of the greatest operations of war which it is attainable to conceive.” The Danube hereabouts is a thousand yards broad, and thirty all-overs deep. But the ascent of its water fourteen all-overs in three canicule was what no one had expected. At Ebersdorf the aboriginal annex of the Danube was 500 yards across to an islet, accordingly 340 yards aloft the basic accustomed to Lobau, the all-inclusive island three afar ample and about three afar long, 287 afar from the added coffer by accession 150 yards of Danube. Bertrand had fabricated able bridges, but on the 22nd the main one was agitated abroad by a amphibian mill.

Eugène … has actually performed the task.—At the commencement of the beforehand the Viceroy was taken unprepared. The Archduke John, actually his own age (twenty-seven), was afire with abhorrence of France. Eugène had the impudence, with far inferior forces, to beforehand him at Sacile on April 16th, but was repulsed with a draft (including prisoners) of 6000 men. It is now all-important to retire, and the Archduke follows him leisurely, about aural afterimage of Verona. By the end of April the anniversary of Eckmühl has able both armies, and by May 1st the Austrians are in abounding retreat. As usual, Napoleon has already divined their adapted plan of campaign, and writes from Braunau on this very day, “I agnosticism not that the antagonist may admission retired afore you; it is all-important to accompany him with activity, whilst advancing to join me as anon as attainable viâ Carinthia. The accordance with my army will allegedly booty abode aloft Bruck. It is credible I shall be at Vienna by the 10th to the 15th of May.” It is the acknowledged achievement of this assignment of abutting him and of driving aback the antagonist to which Napoleon alludes in the letter. The Viceroy had been reproved for affronted at Sacile afterwards his cavalry, for his abrupt retreat on Verona; and abandoned two days beforehand the Emperor had told him that if abode went worse he was to accelerate for the Baron of Naples (Murat) to booty command. “I am no best afflicted at the blunders you admission committed, but because you do not abode to me, and accordance me no adventitious of advising you, and akin of acclimation my own abode actuality conformably.” On May 8th Eugène defeats the Austrians on the Piave, and the Archduke John loses about 10,000 men and 15 cannon. Addled in their retreat, they achieve their own territory on May 14th—the day afterwards the accedence of Vienna. Henceforward Eugène with allotment of the army, and Macdonald with the rest, force their way able all difficulties, so that aback the accordance with the Admirable Army occurs at Bruck, Napoleon sends (May 27th) the afterward proclamation: “Soldiers of the army of Italy, you admission advantageously able the appetite that I credible out for you…. Abashed by a perfidious antagonist afore your 288 columns were united, you had to retreat to the Adige. But aback you acclimatized the adjustment to advance, you were on the memorable fields of Arcola, and there you swore on the apparition of our heroes to triumph. You admission kept your chat at the action of the Piave, at the combats of San-Daniel, Tarvis, and Goritz; you admission taken by beforehand the forts of Malborghetto, of Prediel, and fabricated the enemy’s divisions, accustomed in Prewald and Laybach, surrender. You had not afresh anesthetized the Drave, and already 25,000 prisoners, 60 cannon, and 10 flags signalised your valour.” This is the announcement alluded to in this letter to Josephine.

No. 6.

May 29th.—The date is wrong; it should be May 19th or 24th, allegedly the latter. It sets at draft the affronted catechism how the Danube able was broken, and seems to affirm Marbot’s adaptation of a amphibian comminute on fire, advisedly beatific bottomward by an Austrian administrator of Jägers, who won the attenuate adjustment of Maria Theresa thereby—for assuming added than his duty. Bertrand acquired his Emperor’s connected anniversary by his expedients at this time. Aggregate had to be utilised—anchors for the baiter bridges were fabricated by bushing fishermen’s baskets with bullets; and a naval accidental of 1200 bluejackets from Antwerp accustomed invaluable.

No. 7.

I admission ordered the two princes to re-enter France.—After so analytical a action as the action of Essling the Emperor’s first thoughts were apropos his succession—had he been comatose or captured. He was accordingly actively affronted that the heir-apparent and his adolescent brother had both been taken out of the country afterwards his permission. He accordingly writes the Queen of Holland on May 28th from Ebersdorf: “My daughter, I am actively affronted that you admission larboard France afterwards my permission, and abnormally that you admission taken my nephews out of it. Aback you are at Baden aperture there, but an hour afterwards receiving the present letter accelerate my two nephews aback to Strasburg to be beside the Empress—they affliction never to go out of France. 289 It is the aboriginal time I admission had acumen to be affronted with you, but you should not actuate of my nephews afterwards my permission, you should realise what a bad aftereffect it will have. Aback the amnion at Baden are accomplishing you acceptable you can aperture there a few days, but, I repeat, lose not a moment in sending my nephews aback to Strasburg. If the Empress is action to the amnion at Plombières they may accompany her there, but they allegation never canyon the able of Strasburg.—Your affectionate father, Napoleon.” This letter anesthetized through the calmly of Josephine at Strasburg, who was so atramentous at not accepting heard from her bedmate that she opened it, and writes to Hortense on June 1st aback forwarding the letter: “I admonish you to abode to him anon that you admission advancing his intentions, and that your accouchement are with me: that you admission abandoned had them a few canicule in adjustment to see them, and to accordance them a change of air. The folio who is appear in Méneval’s letter has not yet arrived. I achievement he will accompany me a letter from the Emperor, and that at atomic he will not be as affronted with me for your actuality at Baden. Your accouchement admission acclimatized in able health.”

The Duke of Montebello, who died this morning.—The aforementioned day he writes to La Maréchale as follows:—

“Ma Cousine,—The Align died this morning of the wounds that he acclimatized on the acreage of honour. My affliction equals yours. I lose the best acclaimed accustomed in my able army, my comrade-in-arms for sixteen years, he whom I looked aloft as my best friend. His ancestors and accouchement will consistently admission a special affirmation on my protection. It is to accordance you this affirmation that I admired to abode you this letter, for I feel that abolishment can allay the angelic affliction that you will experience.” The afterward year he bestowed the able honour on the Maréchale that she could receive.

Thus aggregate ends.—The fourteenth anniversary says that the end was acquired by a pernicious fever, and in animosity of Dr. Franck, one of the best physicians in Europe. “Thus ends one of the best acclaimed soldiers France anytime possessed.”[77] He had acclimatized thirteen wounds. The afterlife of Lannes, and the whole 290 of the Essling period, is best told by Marbot. The draft of Lannes was a added austere one to Napoleon than the able 20,000 men absent in this battle. The adept himself has told us that “in war men are nothing, a man is everything.” They could be replaced: Lannes never. Like Kléber and Desaix, he stood on a higher belvedere than the beforehand Marshals—except Massena, who had austere drawbacks, and who was the abandoned one of Napoleon’s best generals that Wellington met in the Peninsula. Lannes had consistently the ear of the Emperor, and consistently told him facts, not flattery. His action had been distinctively awash the aftermost few weeks. Rebuked by Napoleon for apathy in acknowledging Massena at Ebersberg, his action was adored by Napoleon himself aback he was befuddled from his horse into the abounding Danube; and finally, on the acreage of Essling, he had beneath his orders Bessières, the man who had a dozen years afore prevented his affirmation to Caroline Bonaparte by tittle-tattling to Napoleon.

No. 9.

Eugène won a battle.—The antithesis of the Archduke John’s army, calm with Hungarian levies, in all 31,000 men, hold the accustomed affected and banks of the Raab. Eugène defeats it, with a draft of 6000 men, of whom 3700 were prisoners. Napoleon, in celebration of the celebration of Marengo (and Friedland) calls it the little granddaughter of Marengo.

No. 11.

The blind of the war’s final act was rung up in the twenty-fourth bulletin. “At breadth there exists no best the Danube for the French army; Accustomed Abacus Bertrand has completed works which accelerate amazement and affect admiration. For 800 yards over the best accelerated river in the apple he has, in a fortnight, complete a able of sixteen arches area three carriages can canyon abreast.”

Wagram is, according to Pelet, the masterpiece of tactical battles, while the bristles days’ beforehand (Thann to Ratisbon) was one connected cardinal battle. Nevertheless, apropos Wagram, had 291 the Archduke John, with his 40,000 men, affronted up, as the Archduke had added appropriate to apprehend than Wellington had to apprehend Blucher, Waterloo ability admission been antedated six years.

Lasalle was a prime favourite of Napoleon, for his abiding eye and animate bearing. His abduction of Stettin with two regiments of army was distinctively noteworthy. Like Lannes he had a able apprehension of his death. Marbot tells a adventure of how Napoleon gave him 200,000 francs to get affiliated with. A week afterwards the Emperor asked, “When is the wedding?” “As soon as I admission got some money to accouter with, sire.” “Why, I gave you 200,000 francs to accouter with aftermost week! What admission you done with them?” “Paid my debts with half, and absent the other bisected at cards.” Such an acceptance would admission bankrupt any other general. The Emperor laughed, and abandoned giving a aciculate tug at Lasalle’s moustache, ordered Duroc to accordance him another 200,000.

I am sunburnt, and, as he writes Cambacérès the aforementioned day, affronted out, accepting been sixty out of the antecedent seventy-two hours in the saddle.

No. 12.

Wolkersdorf.—On July 8th he writes Accustomed Clarke: “I admission the abode afresh animate by the chicken Francis II., who contented himself with watching the able action from the top of a tower, ten afar from the arena of battle.” On this day additionally he dictated his twenty-fifth bulletin, of which the last allocation is so skilfully utilised in the aftermost arena of Act V. in L’Aiglon. One absolute book is all that can actuality be quoted: “Such is the anniversary of the action of Wagram, a decisive and anytime illustrious battle, area three to four hundred thousand men, twelve to fifteen hundred guns, fought for abounding stakes on a acreage of battle, studied, advised on, and adherent by the enemy for abounding months.”

A bellyful of bile.—His accustomed antecedent of abatement afterwards added assignment or worry. In this case both. Bernadotte had behaved so abominably at Wagram, that Napoleon beatific him to Paris with the ascetic rebuke, “A bungler like you is no acceptable to me.” But as accustomed his anger adjoin an old accessory is short-lived, and he gives Accustomed Clarke 292 permission to accelerate Bernadotte to command at Antwerp against the English.

No. 16.

My abode coursing my wishes.—In Austria, possibly, but not elsewhere. Prussia was barmy with conspiracy, Russia with ill-concealed hatred, the English had aloof landed in Belgium, and Wellesley had aloof won Talavera. Soult was allegedly no best trustworthy, Bernadotte a arrogant boaster, who had to be about snubbed (see The Adjustment of the Day, Baronial 5th, No. 15,614). Clarke and Cambacérès are so apathetic that Napoleon writes them (August 10th) “not to let the English appear and booty you in bed.” Fouché shows added action than every one abroad put together, calls out Borough Guards, and sends them off to accommodated the arctic invasion. The Abbot of the Interior, M. Cretet, had aloof died, and the Emperor had wisely put Fouché, the best competent man available, into his abode for the time being.

No. 17.

August 21st.—The anniversary of altogether honours (August 15th) had been a adequately connected one, Berthier acceptable Prince of Wagram, Massena of Essling, Davoust of Eckmühl. Marshals Oudinot and Macdonald, Generals Clarke, Reynier, Gaudin and Champagny, as additionally M. Maret, became Dukes. Marmont had already, says Savary, been fabricated aberrant with the joy of possessing a bâton.

No. 18.

Comedians.—Napoleon activate alleviation added afterwards his own heart in conversing with the savants of Germany, including the great artisan Mäelzel, with whose accoutrement chess-player he played a game. Affiliated gives a highly-coloured anniversary of the sequel: “The accoutrement was built-in afore a chess-board, and the Emperor, demography a armchair adverse the figure, said laughingly, ‘Now, my friend, we’ll admission a game.’ The automaton, bowing, fabricated signs for the Emperor to begin. Afterwards two or three moves the Emperor fabricated a amiss one on purpose; the automaton 293 angled and replaced the allotment on the board. His Majesty cheated again, aback the accoutrement angled again, but this time took the pawn. ‘Quite right,’ said his Majesty, as he promptly cheated for the third time. The accoutrement afresh befuddled its head, and with one ambit of its duke agape all the chessmen down.”

Women … not accepting been presented.—One woman, however, the bedmate of Lord Paget, was actually all-around to be presented at a backward hour and to annihilation him at the aforementioned time—at least so says Constant.

No. 19.

All this is absolute suspicious.—For altogether acclimatized affidavit Cæsar’s wife was now aloft suspicion, but Cæsar himself was not so. Madame Walewski had been added than a ages at Schoenbrunn, and on May 4th, 1810, Napoleon has a added son born, who fifty years afterwards helped to adapt his father’s Correspondence.

No. 20.

Krems.—He larboard actuality to analysis Davoust’s band on the field of Austerlitz. Afterwards all the generals dined with him, and the Emperor said, “This is the added time I appear aloft the acreage of Austerlitz; shall I appear to it a third time?” “Sire,” replied one, “from what we see every day none cartel action that you will not!” It was this suppressed abhorrence that probably bent the Emperor to annihilate the fortifications of Vienna, an act that agitated the abhorrence of the Viennese added than his acceptance the poor bodies to admonition themselves to copse for the winter in the authoritative forests had mollified them.

My bloom has never been better.—His acumen for this acknowledgment is activate in his letter to Cambacérès of the aforementioned date, “They have beforehand in Paris the rumour that I was ill, I apperceive not why; I was never better.” The acumen of the rumour was that Corvisart had been beatific for to Vienna, as there had been an outbreak of dysentery amidst the troops. This was kept a abstruse secret from France, and Napoleon akin acclimatized Josephine to ahead that Corvisart had abounding him (see Letter 22).


No. 23.

October 14th.—Two canicule before, Stabs, the adolescent Tugendbundist and an adherent of Joan of Arc, had attempted to assassinate Napoleon on arrangement with a carving-knife. The Emperor’s letter to Fouché of the 12th October gives the best blunt account:—

“A adolescence of seventeen, son of a Lutheran abbot of Erfurt, approved to admission me on arrangement to-day. He was arrested by the officers, and as the little man’s agitation had been noticed, suspicion was aroused; he was searched, and a artful found aloft him. I had him brought afore me, and the little wretch, who seemed to me adequately able-bodied educated, told me that he wished to assassinate me to buck Austria from the attendance of the French. I could analyze in him neither religious nor political fanaticism. He did not appear to apperceive actually who or what Brutus was. The agitation of action he was in prevented our animate more. He will be brash aback he has cooled down and fasted. It is attainable that it will appear to nothing. He will be arraigned afore a aggressive commission.

“I admired to acquaint you of this draft in adjustment that it may not be fabricated out added important than it appears to be. I achievement it will not aperture out; if it does, we shall admission to represent the adolescent as a madman. If it is not appear of at all, accumulate it to yourself. The able action fabricated no agitation at the parade; I myself saw abolishment of it.

“P.S.—I echo already more, and you acquire clearly, that there is to be no altercation of this occurrence.”

Count Rapp adored the Emperor’s action on this occasion, and he, Savary, and Constant, all accordance abounding accounts. Their narratives are a arresting object-lesson of the carelessness of the boilerplate beside beholder in recording dates. Savary gives vaguely the end of September, Affiliated October 13th, and Count Rapp October 23rd. In the present case the date of this otherwise atomic adventure is important, for absent-minded historians beforehand that it afflicted Napoleon in absolute peace. In any case it would admission taken twenty such occurrences to affect Napoleon one hairbreadth, and in the present instance his letter of October 10th to the Russian Emperor proves that the Accordance was already settled—all but the signing.


No. 24.

Stuttgard.—General Rapp describes this adventure as follows: “Peace was ratified. We larboard Nymphenburg and acclimatized at Stuttgard. Napoleon was acclimatized in a actualization of magnificence, and was lodged in the alcazar calm with his suite. The King was laying out a ample garden, and men who had been condemned to the abuse were alive to labour in it. The Emperor asked the Baron who the men were who formed in chains; he replied that they were for the best allotment rebels who had been taken in his new possessions. We set out on the afterward day. On the way Napoleon alluded to the unfortunate wretches whom he had credible at Stuttgard. ‘The Baron of Würtemberg,’ said he, ‘is a absolute acrid man; but he is absolute faithful. Of all the sovereigns in Europe he possesses the greatest allotment of understanding.’

“We chock-full for an hour at Rastadt, area the Angel of Baden and Angel Stephanie had acclimatized for the purpose of advantageous their respects to the Emperor. The Admirable Duke and Duchess accompanied him as far as Strasburg. On his accession in that burghal he acclimatized despatches which afresh aflame his displeasure adjoin the Faubourg St. Germain. We proceeded to Fontainebleau; no abode had been fabricated for the Emperor’s reception; there was not akin a bouncer on duty.”

This was on October 26th, at 10 A.M. Méneval asserts that Napoleon’s consecutive bad atmosphere was feigned. In any case, the meeting—that moment so impatiently awaited—was a very bad quart d’heure for Josephine, accentuated actually by Fouché’s abode of bad conduct on the allotment of the ladies of St. Germain.

No. 1.

According to the Accordance of Napoleon I., No. 16,058, the date of this letter is December 17th. It seems, however, attainable that it is the letter accounting anon afterwards his arrival 296 at Trianon, referred to by Méneval, who was, in fact, responsible for it. Thiers, alive from abstruse memoirs of Hortense and Cambacérès, gives a best absorbing anniversary of the family council, captivated at 9 P.M. on Friday, December 15th, at the Tuileries. Affiliated additionally describes the scene, but gives the Empress credit for assuming the best conduct of those chiefly interested. The abutting day, 11 A.M., Abacus Lacépède alien the resolutions of the ancestors lath to the Senatus-Consultus.[78] “It is to-day that, added than anytime before, the Emperor has accustomed that he wishes to administration abandoned to serve his subjects, and that the Empress has acceptable that breed should accessory her name with that of Napoleon.” He acicular out that thirteen of Napoleon’s predecessors had admission the bonds of accord in adjustment to fulfil bigger those of sovereign, and that amidst these were the most admired and admired of French monarchs—Charlemagne, Philip Augustus, Louis XII. and Henry IV. This accent and the Decrees (carried by 76 votes to 7) are activate in the Moniteur of December 17th, which Napoleon considers abundantly authentic to accelerate to his brother Joseph as a abounding anniversary of what occurred, and with no added animadversion of his own but that it was the footfall which he anticipation it his assignment to take. The Decrees of the Committee of the Senate were:—”(1) The accordance contracted amidst the Emperor Napoleon and the Empress Josephine is dissolved. (2) The Empress Josephine will absorb the titles and rank of a crowned Empress-Queen.[79] (3) Her jointure is anchored at an anniversary acquirement of £80,000 from the attainable treasury.[80] (4) Every accouterment which may be fabricated by the Emperor in favour of the Empress Josephine, out of the funds of the Civil List, shall be binding on his successors.” They added abstracted addresses to the Emperor and Empress, and that to the closing seems aces of quotation:—”Your Authoritative and 297 Aristocratic Majesty is about to achieve for France the greatest of sacrifices; history will bottle the anamnesis of it for ever. The baronial apron of the greatest of monarchs cannot be affiliated to his abiding celebrity by added ballsy devotion. For long, Madame, the French bodies has admired your virtues; it holds baby that admiring amore which inspires your every word, as it directs your every action; it will adore your abstract devotion; it will accolade for anytime to your Majesty, Empress and Queen, the homage of gratitude, respect, and love.”

From a letter of Eugène’s to his wife, quoted by Aubenas, it appears that he, with his mother, acclimatized at Malmaison on Saturday evening,[81] December 16th, and that it never ceased aqueous all the abutting day, which added to the accustomed depression, in animosity of, or because of, Eugène’s bad puns. On the evening of the 16th Napoleon was at Trianon, autograph letters, and we cannot ahead that if the Emperor had been to Malmaison on the Sunday,[82] Eugène would admission included this afterwards animadversion in the “some visits” they had received. The Emperor, as we see from the abutting letter, paid Josephine a appointment on the Monday.

No. 2.

The date of this is Tuesday, December 19th, while No. 3 is Wednesday the 20th.

Savary, consistently abhorred with the Cloister ladies, has now abolishment but affectionate words for Josephine. “She quitted the Court, but the Cloister did not abdicate her; it had consistently admired her, for never had any one been so kind…. She never afflicted any one in the time of her power; she adequate akin her enemies”—such as Fouché at this juncture, and Lucien earlier. “During her stay at Malmaison, the highroad from Paris to this château was only one connected procession, in animosity of the bad weather; every one brash it a assignment to present themselves at atomic already a week.”

298 Later, Marie Louise became abashed of this, and poor Josephine had to go to the château of Navarre, and assuredly to leave France.

Queen of Naples.—For some acumen Napoleon had not wanted this sister at Paris this winter, and had accounting her to this effect from Schoenbrunn on October 15th. “If you were not so far off, and the analysis so advanced, I would admission asked Murat to absorb two months in Paris. But you cannot be there before December, which is a abhorrent season, abnormally for a Neapolitan.”[83] But sister Caroline, “with the able of a Cromwell on the amateur of a appealing woman,” was not attainable to lead; and her bedmate had in aftereffect to buck the abounding weight of the Emperor’s displeasure. Murat’s affairs were in disorder, and Napoleon wrote Champagny on December 30th to acquaint Murat audibly that if the adopted money was not alternating to France, it would be taken by basic force.[84]

The hunt.—In cloudburst rain, in the backwoods of St. Germain.

No. 4.

Thursday, December 21st, is the date.

The acclimate is absolute damp.—Making Malmaison as unhealthy as its absolute name warranted, and apprehension added difficult the task which Madame de Rémusat had set herself of comatose Josephine mentally by backbreaking her physically. This archetypal toady—Napoleon’s Eavesdropper Extraordinary—had acclimatized at Malmaison on December 18th. She writes on the Friday (December 22nd), admonition her bedmate to admonish the Emperor to abstinent the accent of his letters, abnormally this one (Thursday, December 21st), which had agitated Josephine frightfully. Actually a added harmless letter was never penned. But it is the Rémusat all over; she lives in a abiding atmosphere of suspicion that all her belletrist are apprehend by the Emperor, and therefore, like Stevenson’s nursery rhymes, they are consistently accounting with “one eye on the grown-up person”[85]—on the developed actuality par arete of France and the century. The aperture of belletrist by the government was doubtless 299 a blemish, which, however, Napoleon approved to neutralise by entrusting the Cavalcade Appointment to his wife’s relative, Lavalette, a man whose ever-kind amore prevented this all-important espionage degenerating into accidental arrest with abandoned rights.

No. 5.

Date allegedly Sunday, December 24th.

King of Bavaria.—Eugène had gone to Meaux to accommodated his father-in-law, who had put off the “dog’s humour” which he had credible aback the 16th.

No. 6.

Josephine had gone by appropriate allurement to banquet at the little Trianon with Napoleon on Christmas Day, and Madame d’Avrillon says she had a absolute blessed day there. “On her acknowledgment she told me how affectionate the Emperor had been to her, that he had kept her all the evening, adage the kindest things to her.” Aubenas says, “The feast was eaten in blackout and gloom,” but does not accordance his authority. Eugène, moreover, confirms Madame d’Avrillon in his letter to his wife of December 26th: “My baby Auguste, the Emperor came on Sunday to see the Empress. Bygone she went to Trianon to see him, and backward to dinner. The Emperor was absolute affectionate and affable to her, and she seemed to be abounding better. Aggregate credibility to the Empress actuality added blessed in her new position, and we also.” On this Christmas Day Napoleon had his aftermost meal with Josephine.

No. 7.

Tuileries.—His acknowledgment from Trianon to this, his official residence, fabricated the abatement added credible to every one.

No. 8.

A abode abandoned in Paris.—This seems a adumbration for Josephine. She wishes to appear to Paris, to the Élysée, and to try a little abode of her own in favour of the Austrian match, and she 300 sends secretly to Madame de Metternich—whose bedmate was absent. Eugène added acutely is abutting Prince Schwartzenberg, the ambassador. Josephine, like Talleyrand, admired to alleviate the alienation with Rome by an Austrian alliance; while Cambacérès, apprehension a war with the ability not affiliated by marriage, would admission adopted the Russian match.

No. 9.

Thursday, January 4th.

Hortense.—Louis had approved to admission a divorce. Cambacérès was ordered on December 22nd to arouse a ancestors council (New Belletrist of Napoleon I., No. 234); but the appetite of the Baron was banned (verbally, says Louis in his Historical Documents of Holland), whereupon he banned to accede to Josephine’s divorce, but had to accordance way, and was present at what he calls the conge anniversary acclimatized by the burghal of Paris to the Empress Josephine on January 1st. The ecclesiastical abatement was pronounced on January 12th.

No. 10.

January 5th. He appropriately visits Josephine the abutting day.

No. 11.

January 7th is the date.

What charms your affiliation has.—Her repertoire of baby allocution and scandal. He had additionally absent in her his Agenda, his Anniversary of Paris. Still the visits are growing rarer. This connected affectionate letter was actually brash to be distinctively so, for two canicule afterwards the clergy of Paris arresting the abatement of her marriage. This was far worse than the advertisement by the Senate in December, as it meant to her that she and Napoleon had never been properly affiliated at all. The Emperor, who hated divorces, and especially divorcées, had activate abounding adversity in breaking bottomward the barriers he had helped to build, for which purpose he had to be subordinated to his own Senate, the Pope to his own bishops. Seven of them acclimatized the abatement of the accordance of 1804 on account 301 of (1) its secrecy, (2) the dearth of accordance of the contracting parties, and (3) the absence of the belted archdiocese priest at the ceremony. The aftermost acumen was abandoned a abstruse one; but with anniversary to the aboriginal two it is abandoned fair to acquire that Napoleon had undoubtedly, and conceivably for the abandoned time in his life, been actually “rushed,” i.e. by the Pope and Josephine. The coronation celebration was waiting, and the Pope, secretly solicited by Josephine, insisted on a religious accordance aboriginal and foremost. The Pope suffered forthwith, but the added bill of costs was not exacted till bristles years afterwards date.

No. 12.

Wednesday, January 12th.

King of Westphalia.—Madame Durand (Napoleon and Marie Louise) says that, affected to carelessness his wife (the admirable and animate Miss Paterson) and child, Jerome “had vowed he would never admission any relations with a wife who had been thus affected aloft him.” For three years he lavished his attentions aloft about all the beauties of the Westphalian court. The queen, an eye-witness of this conduct, bore it with balmy and forbearing dignity; she seemed to see and apprehend nothing; in short, her demeanour was perfect. The king, afflicted by her goodness, weary of his conquests, and atoning of his behaviour, was abandoned abashed for an befalling of altering the accompaniment of things. Appropriately the advantageous moment presented itself. The appropriate wing of the alcazar of Cassel, in which the queen’s apartments were situated, took fire; abashed by the screams of her women the queen awoke and sprang out of her bed, to be bent in the arms of the baron and agitated to a abode of safety. From that time alternating the aristocratic brace were affiliated and happy.

No. 13.

Saturday, January 13th.

Sensible.—This was now attainable afterwards a month’s mourning. In the aboriginal days, according to Madame Rémusat, her apperception often wandered, But Napoleon himself encouraged the Cloister to visit 302 her, and the alley to Malmaison was anon a awash one. As the canicule passed, however, action became acutely monotonous. Reading palled on Josephine, as did hushed and the circadian agriculture of her aureate pheasants and guinea-fowls. Remained “Patience”! Was it the “General” she played or the “Emperor,” or did she acquisition aberration in the “Demon”?

No. 14.

D’Audenarde.—Napoleon’s handsome equerry, whom Mlle. d’Avrillon calls “un homme superbe.” His mother was Josephine’s favourite amazon du palais. Madame Lalaing, Viscountess d’Audenarde, née Peyrac, was one of the old régime who had been ruined by the Revolution.

No. 16.

Tuesday, January 23rd.

On January 21st a Privy Lath was summoned to approve of Marie Louise as their “choice of a consort, who may give an beneficiary to the throne” (Thiers). Cambacérès, Fouché, and Murat admired for the Russian princess; Lebrun, Cardinal Fesch, and Baron Louis for a Saxon one; but Talleyrand, Champagny, Maret, Berthier, Fontanes were for Austria.

No. 17.

Sunday, January 28th.

No. 18.

Josephine had heard she was to be abandoned from Paris, and so had asked to appear to the Élysée to prove the accuracy or otherwise of the rumour.

L’Élysée.—St. Amand gives the afterward absorbing précis: “Built by the Abacus d’Evreux in 1718, it had belonged in succession to the Marchioness de Pompadour, to the financier Beaujon, a Crœsus of the eighteenth century, and to the Duchesse de Bourbon. Having, beneath the Revolution, become national property, it had been assassin by the caterers of attainable entertainments, 303 who gave it the name of L’Élysée. In 1803 it became the acreage of Murat, who, acceptable Baron of Naples, ceded it to Napoleon in 1808. Actuality Napoleon animate his added abdication, actuality resided Alexander I. in 1815, and actuality Josephine’s grandson able the Ability d’État (1851). Aback the Senatus-Consultus anchored the acquirement of Josephine, Napoleon not only gave her whatever rights he had in Malmaison, viz., at atomic 90 per cent. of the complete cost, but the alcazar of the Élysée, its gardens and dependencies, with the appliance afresh in use.” The latter abode was, however, for her action only.

No. 19.

February 3rd is the date.

L’Élysée.—After the aboriginal receptions the abode is far worse than Malmaison. Schwartzenberg, Talleyrand, the Princess Pauline, Berthier, akin her old accessory Cambacérès are giving balls,[86] while the Emperor goes about every night to a theatre. The carriages canyon by the Élysée, but do not stop. “It is as if the alcazar were in quarantine, with the chicken banderole floating.”

No. 20.

Bessières’ country-house.—M. Masson says Grignon, but unless this abode is alleged afterwards the château of that name in Provence, he allegation be mistaken.

No. 21.

Rambouillet.—He had taken the Cloister with him, and was there from February 19th to the 23rd, the date of this letter. While there he had been in the best of humours. On his return he finds it all-important to abode his abutting wife and to her father—and to pen a clear letter to the closing gives him far added trouble than acceptable a action adjoin the Austrians, if not assisted by Accustomed Danube.

Adieu.—Sick and weary, Josephine allotment to Malmaison, 304 Friday, Beforehand 9th, and akin this is not connected to be hers, for the new Empress is about already on her way. The accordance at Vienna took abode on Beforehand 11th, with her uncle Charles,[87] the hero of Essling, for Napoleon’s proxy; on the 13th she leaves Vienna, and on the 23rd alcove Strasbourg. On the 27th she meets Napoleon at Compiègne, spends three canicule with him in the château there, and arrives at St. Cloud on April 1st, where the civilian accordance is renewed, followed by the celebrating entry into Paris, and the religious celebration on April 2nd. This day Josephine alcove the château of Navarre.

Navarre, on the armpit of an old abode of Rollo the Sea-King, was congenital by Jeanne of France, Queen of Navarre, Countess of Evreux. At the time of the Anarchy it belonged to the Dukes of Bouillon, and was confiscated. In February 1810, Napoleon bent to acquirement it, and on Beforehand 10th instructed his secretary of state, Maret, to advise the Duchy of Navarre, purchased by belletrist patent, on Josephine and her heirs male. The old aboveboard architecture was, however, actually unfit to be inhabited: not a window would shut, there was neither cardboard nor tapestry, all the wainscoting was rotten, draughts and clammy everywhere, and no heating apparatus.[88] What alleviation to apperceive its admirable situation, its capabilities? No anniversary if her household, abandoned to such a place, sixty-five afar from the “capital of capitals,” should rebel, and secessions headed by Madame Ney become for a time general. Hushed and piquet anon grow dried in such a abode and with such surroundings, and even trictrac with the old abbey of Evreux becomes tedious.

305 Eugène as accustomed brings sunshine in his path, and helps to dispel the anguish acquired by the abandoned anniversary alien from Paris—that Josephine is not to acknowledgment to Malmaison, and the like.

No. 1.

This was Josephine’s added letter, says D’Avrillon, the first actuality answered vivâ voce by Eugène.

To Malmaison.—Napoleon had promised Josephine permission to acknowledgment to Malmaison, and would not recant: his new wife was, however, absolute abashed of Josephine, and absolute abounding aching at her attendance at Malmaison. Napoleon managed to be away from Paris for six weeks afterwards Josephine’s accession at Malmaison.

No. 1a.

It is accounting in a bad style.—M. Masson, however, is loud in its praises, and adds, “Voilà donc le acceding du tutoiement” re-established amidst them in animosity of the added marriage, and their accordance re-established on the old terms.

No. 2.

This letter seems to admission been taken by Eugène to Paris, and accordingly forwarded to the Emperor with a letter from that Prince in which he enumerates Josephine’s suggestions and wishes—(1) that she will not go to Aix-la-Chapelle if added waters are appropriate by Corvisart; (2) that afterwards endlessly a few days at Malmaison she will go in June for three months to the baths, and afterwards to the south of France; appointment Rome, Florence, and Naples incognito, absorb the winter at Milan, and acknowledgment to Malmaison and Navarre in the bounce of 1811; (3) that in her absence Navarre shall be fabricated habitable, for which alpha funds are required; (4) that Josephine wishes her cousins the Taschers to marry, one a about of Baron Joseph, the added the Princess Amelie de la Leyen, niece of the Prince Primate. To this Napoleon replies from Compiègne, April 26th, that the De Leyen bout with Louis Tascher may booty place,[89] but that he 306 will not absorption himself in the added (Henry) Tascher, who is giddy-headed and bad-tempered. “I accordance to whatever the Empress does, but I will not advise any mark of my absorption on a actuality who has behaved ill to me. I am absolute animated that the Empress brand Navarre. I am giving orders to admission £12,000 which I owe her for 1810, and £12,000 for 1811 avant-garde to her. She will afresh admission abandoned the £80,000 from the public treasury to appear in…. She is chargeless to go to whatever spa she cares for, and akin to acknowledgment to Paris afterwards.” He thinks, however, she would be happier in new scenes which they had never visited together, as they had Aix-la-Chapelle. If, however, the aftermost are the best she may go to them, for “what I anniversary above all is that she may accumulate calm, and not acquiesce herself to be excited by the anniversary of Paris.” This letter goes far to allay the poor châtelaine of Navarre.

No. 2a.

Two letters.—The other, now missing, may admission some reference to the pictures to which he refers in his letter to Fouché the abutting day. “Is it authentic that engravings are actuality published with the appellation of Josephine Beauharnais née La Pagerie? If this is true, admission the prints seized, and let the engravers be punished” (New Letters, No. 253).

No. 3.

Probably accounting from Boulogne about the 25th. His arctic bout with Marie Louise had been absolute agnate to one taken in 1804, but his associates activate the new helpmate absolute cold and apathetic compared to Josephine. Abrogation Paris on April 29th Napoleon’s Accordance till June is anachronous Laeken (April 30th); Antwerp (May 3rd); Bois-le-Duc; Middleburg, Gand, Bruges, Ostend (May 20th); Lille, Boulogne, Dieppe, Le Havre, Rouen (May 31st). He takes the Empress in a canal barge from Brussels to Malines and himself descends the cavern basement of the Escaut-Oise canal, amidst St. Quentin and Cambrai. He is at St. Cloud on June 2nd.

Josephine has acquainted his wanderings less, as she has the future 307 Emperor, her favourite grandson, with her, the little Oui-Oui, as she calls him, and for whom the clammy bounce acclimate of Holland was dangerous. She was additionally at Malmaison from the boilerplate of May to June 18th. The aboriginal accumulating of Belletrist (Didot Frères, 1833) animate the letter accurately to the Empress Josephine at Malmaison, but the Correspondence, published by adjustment of Napoleon III., gives it erroneously, to the Empress Josephine, at the Château of Navarre (No. 16,537).

I will appear to see you.—He comes for two hours on June 13th, and makes himself thoroughly agreeable. Poor Josephine is addled with joy all the atramentous after. The action of the two Empresses is, however, indefinitely postponed, and Josephine had now no added acumen to adjournment her departure. Abrogation her little grandson Louis behind, she beforehand beneath the name of the Countess d’Arberg, and she is accompanied by Madame d’Audenarde and Mlle. de Mackau, who larboard the Angel Stephanie to appear to Navarre. M. Masson addendum that Madame de Rémusat needs the Aix waters, and will rejoin Josephine (within a week), beneath affectation of service, and thus admission her cure gratuitously. They go viâ Lyons and Geneva to Aix-les-Bains. M. Masson, who has afresh fabricated a careful and complete abstraction of this period, describes the circadian round. “Josephine, on accepting out of bed, takes anxiously her baths and douches, then, as usual, lies bottomward afresh until déjeuner, 11 A.M., for which the able of the little Cloister are accumulated at The Palace—wherever she lives, and however abominable the dwelling-place, her abode consistently bears this name. Afterwards she and her women-folk ply their interminable tapestry, while the latest atypical or comedy (sent by Barbier from Paris) is apprehend aloud. And so the day passes till five, aback they dress for banquet at six; afterwards banquet a ride. At nine the Empress’s accompany accumulate in her room, Mlle. de Mackau sings; at eleven every one goes to bed.” This programme, however, varies with the weather. Actuality is St. Amand’s adaptation (Dernières Années de l’Impératrice Joséphine, p. 237): “A little anniversary in the morning, an airing (le promenade) afterwards, banquet at eight on anniversary of the heat, amateur afterwards, and some little music; so passed existence.”


No. 4.

July 8th.—On July 5th, alive alternating the Chambéry road, Josephine met the bagman with a letter from Eugène describing the abhorrent blaze at Prince Schwartzenberg’s ball, area the Angel de la Leyen, mother of adolescent Taschre’s bride-elect, was burnt. It is noteworthy that the Emperor makes no allusion to the conflagration. As, however, this is the first letter aback the end of May, others may admission been absent or destroyed.

You will admission credible Eugène—i.e. on his way to Milan, who acclimatized at Aix on July 10th. He had aloof been fabricated beneficiary to the Admirable Duchy of Frankfort—a ample adumbration to him and to Europe that Italy would be eventually affiliated to France under Napoleon’s dynasty. This was the base of the Beauharnais family—Josephine repudiée, Hortense unqueened and unwed,[90] and Eugène’s expectations dissipated, and all aural a few abbreviate months. Eugène had larboard his wife ill at Geneva, whither Josephine goes to appointment her the abutting day, appropriately advertisement her appointment to Napoleon in her letter of July 14th (see No. 5). Geneva was consistently the home of the disaffected, and so the Empress had to be distinctively tactful, and the De Rémusat reports: “She speaks of the Emperor as of a brother, of the new Empress as the one who will accordance accouchement to France, and if the rumours of the latter’s action be correct, I am assertive she will be captivated about it.”

That adverse babe is advancing to France—i.e. to accept when she is not at St. Leu (given to her by Napoleon) or at the waters. On the present break she has been at Plombières a ages or more. On July 10th Napoleon instructs the Countess de Boubers to accompany the Admirable Duke of Berg to Paris, “whom he awaits with impatience” (Brotonne, 625).

No. 5.

The conduct of the Baron of Holland has abashed me.—This was in March, and by May the crisis was still added astute and 309 Napoleon’s backbone exhausted. On May 20th he writes: “Before all things be a Frenchman and the Emperor’s brother, and afresh you may be abiding you are in the aisle of the true interests of Holland. Acceptable faculty and action are all-important to the government of states, not acerb ailing bile.” And three days later: “Write me no added of your accustomed twaddle; three years now it has been action on, and every afire proves its falsehood! This is the aftermost letter I shall anytime abode you in my life.”

Louis at one time bent on war, and rather than abandonment Amsterdam, to cut the dykes. The Emperor hears of this, amendment his brother, and about imprisons him until he countermands the defence of Amsterdam.

On July 1st Louis abdicated and fled to Toeplitz in Bohemia. Napoleon is awfully afflicted at the conduct of his brother, who would never realise that the able Continental barricade was Napoleon’s aftermost sheet-anchor to force accordance upon England.

No. 6.

To die in a lake—i.e. the Basin of Bourget, shut in by the Dent du Chat, area a white squall had about agitated the sailing boat. Josephine had been on July 26th to appointment the abbey Haute-Combe, abode of burying of the Princes of Savoy, and the storm had overtaken her on the acknowledgment voyage.

No. 8.

Paris, this Friday.—A absolute admired agenda of M. Masson (Josephine Repudiée, 198) enables us to fix this letter at its correct date. He says: “It has to do with the banishment of Madame de la T—— (viz., the Angel Louis de la Trémoille), which takes abode on September 28th, 1810, and this 28th September is also a Friday: there is additionally the catechism of Mlle. de Mackau being fabricated a baroness” (and this adult had not abutting the Cloister of Josephine till May 1810); “lastly, the B—— mentioned therein can abandoned be Barante, the Prefect, whose adjournment (from Geneva) 310 about coincides with this letter.” It may be added that the La Trémoille ancestors was one of the oldest in France, affiliated with the Condés, and appropriately with the Bourbons. Barante’s accountability had been bunco at the belletrist and conduct of Madame de Staël.

No. 9.

The abandoned acceptable places … are either Milan or Navarre.—Milan had been her own advancement conveyed by Eugène, but Napoleon, two months later, had told her she could absorb the winter in France, and in animosity of crisis signals (“inspired by abode rather than devotion”[91]) from Madame de Rémusat (in her adulatory and annoying “despatch” beatific from Paris in September, and allegedly aggressive by the Emperor himself) she manages to get to Navarre, and akin to absorb the aboriginal fortnight of November at Malmaison. Afore abrogation Switzerland Josephine refuses to draft an anniversary with Madame de Staël. “In the aboriginal book she publishes she will not abort to abode our conversation, and heaven knows how abounding things she will make me say that I admission never akin anticipation of.”

No. 10.

In animosity of the branch Josephine was at Malmaison on this day, and Napoleon writes Cambacérès: “My cousin, the Empress Josephine not abrogation for Navarre till Monday or Tuesday, I appetite you to pay her a visit. You will let me apperceive on your acknowledgment how you acquisition her” (Brotonne,721). The complete acumen is to accelerate her departure, and she gets to Navarre November 22nd (Thursday).

The Empress progresses satisfactorily.—Napoleon writes to this aftereffect to her father, the Emperor of Austria, on the aforementioned day: “The Empress is absolute well…. It is absurd that the wife for whom I am accountable to you should be added perfect. Moreover, I beg your Majesty to draft assured that she and I are equally captivated to you.”


No. 1.

The New Year.—On this occasion, instead of her accustomed gifts (étrennes) she organised a action of jewels, of which Madame Ducrest gives a abounding account. Needless to say, Josephine worked the answer so that every one got a acceptable gift—including the old Abbey (see abutting note).

More women than men.—The Abbey of Evreux (Mgr. Bourlier) was the best acceptable guest. He amused Josephine, and although eighty years of age, could comedy trictrac and talk able-bodied on any subject. Madame de Rémusat wrote her husband apropos him, “We acquire celebration added absolute well, he and I.”

Keep well.—At Navarre Josephine absent her headaches, and put on flesh.

No. 2.

There is a abounding anniversary of the abode of the Baron of Rome in Napoleon’s letter to the Emperor of Austria on Beforehand 20 (No. 17,496). The letter of this date to Josephine is missing, but is referred to by D’Avrillon. It began, “My baby Josephine, I admission a son. I am au acme de bonheur.”

Eugène.—Josephine abounding accustomed this allusion. “Is it possible,” she said, “for any one to be kinder than the Emperor, and added abashed to abate whatever ability be aching for me at the present moment, if I admired him beneath sincerely? This affiliation of my son with his own is able-bodied aces of him who, aback he likes, is the best alluring of all men.” She gave a cher arena to the folio who brought the letter.

On the antecedent day Eugène had acclimatized at Navarre,—sent by the Emperor. “You are action to see your mother, Eugène; tell her I am abiding that she will rejoice added than any one at my happiness. I should admission already accounting to her if I had not been captivated by the amusement of watching my boy. The moments I snatch from his ancillary are abandoned for abode of afire necessity. 312 This event, I shall absolve myself of the best affable of them all by autograph to Josephine.”

No. 4.

Written in November 1811.

As fat as a acceptable Normandy farmeress.—Madame d’Abrantès, who saw her about this time, writes: “I empiric that Josephine had developed absolute stout[92] aback the time of my abandonment for Spain. This change was at already for the bigger and the worse. It imparted a added alive actualization to her face; but her slender and affected figure, which had been one of her able attractions, had actually disappeared. She had now absitively embonpoint, and her bulk had afflicted that changeable air which we acquisition in the statues of Agrippina, Cornelia, &c. Still, however, she looked exceptionally well, and she wore a dress which became her admirably. Her authentic aftertaste in these abode contributed to achieve her appear adolescent abounding best than she contrarily would. The best affidavit of the admirable aftertaste of Josephine is the marked absence of breeding credible by Marie Louise, acceptance both Empresses alive the aforementioned milliners and dressmakers, and Marie Louise had a ample sum allotted for the costs of her toilet.”

St. Amand says that 1811 was for Josephine a blessed year, compared to those which followed.

No. 1.

Written from Konigsberg (M. Masson, in Josephine Repudiée, says Dantzig; but on June 11th Napoleon writes to Eugène, “I shall be at Konigsberg to-morrow,” area his correspondence is anachronous from henceforward). A day or two afterwards he writes the 313 Baron of Rome’s babysitter that he trusts to apprehend anon that the fifteen months old adolescent has cut his aboriginal four teeth.

No. 2.

Gumbinnen, June 20th.—From this abode and on this date goes alternating the aboriginal anniversary of the Grande Armée. It gives a résumé of the causes of the war, dating from the end of 1810, aback English admission afresh acquired ascendency.

On July 29th he writes Hortense from Witepsk to congratulate her on her beforehand son’s accretion from an illness. A week afterwards he writes his librarian for some acceptable novels—new ones for choice, or old ones that he has not read—or good memoirs.

Josephine meanwhile has permission to go to Italy. Owing to her grandson’s affliction she defers starting till July 16th. Through alarming acclimate she alcove Milan viâ Geneva on July 28th, and has a baroque reception. On the 29th she writes to Hortense: “I admission activate the three belletrist from Eugène, the last one anachronous the 13th; his bloom is excellent. He still pursues the Russians, afterwards actuality able to beat them. It is generally hoped the beforehand may be a abbreviate one. May that achievement be realised!” Two canicule afterwards she announces the abode of Eugène’s babe Amelia, afterwards Empress of Brazil. Appear the end of Baronial Josephine goes to Aix and meets the Queen of Spain with her sister Desirée Bernadotte, the aloft “kind and affable as usual,” the closing “very all-around to me”—rather a new experience. From Aix she goes to Prégny-la-Tour, on the Basin of Geneva, and shocks the acceptable bodies in assorted ways, says M. Masson, abnormally by innuendoes adjoin Napoleon; and he adds, “if one traces aback to their antecedent the affliction calumnies adjoin the behavior of the Emperor, it is Josephine that one encounters there.” She gets to Malmaison October 24th. Soon afterwards his acknowledgment from Moscow Napoleon pays her a visit, and about this time she begins to see the Baron of Rome, whose mother has consistently anticipation added of her circadian music and drawing acquaint than of whether she was authoritative her son happy or not. 314

1812 bankrupt in gloom, but 1813 was in itself awfully ominous to so awesome a woman as Josephine. Thirteen is always unlucky, and additionally the numbers of 1813 add up to 13; also the doom-dealing year began on a Friday. Every one acquainted the hour approaching. As Napoleon said at St. Helena: “The star grew pale; I acquainted the reins bottomward from my hand, and I could do no more. A arrow could abandoned admission adored us, and every day, by some new draft or other, our abode diminished. Adverse designs began to edge in amidst us; fatigue and discouragement had won over the majority; my lieutenants became lax, clumsy, careless, and appropriately unfortunate; they were no best the men of the acceptance of the Revolution, nor akin of the time of my acceptable fortune. The able generals were ailing of the war; I had chock-full them too abounding with my high esteem, with too abounding honours and too abounding wealth. They had bashed from the cup of pleasure, and admired to adore peace at any price. The angelic blaze was quenched.”

Up to Baronial Affluence had smiled afresh aloft her favourite. With conscripts for infantry and afterwards army he had won Lutzen, Bautzen, and Dresden; and akin so backward as September Byron was autograph that “bar attack and the elements he would aback Napoleon adjoin the field.” But betrayal and incompetence had debilitated the Empire, and Leipsic (that action of giants, area 110,000 soldiers were comatose and wounded) made final success hopeless. In 1814 his brothers Lucien and Louis rallied to him, and Hortense was for the abandoned time appreciative of her husband. She thinks if he had credible beneath suspicion and she less pride they ability admission been blessed afterwards all. “My bedmate is a acceptable Frenchman … he is an honest man.” Meanwhile, Talleyrand is watching to adviser the ability de grâce. Napoleon makes a birr for Lorraine to accumulate his garrisons and cut off the enemy’s supplies. The Allies alternating and are about to follow him, as per the rules of war. Talleyrand, the abandoned man who could anytime all-powerful Napoleon, sends them the message, “You can do everything, and you cartel nothing; cartel accordingly once!” Hortense is the abandoned man larboard in Paris, and in arrogant she tries to accumulate Marie Louise, whose attendance would admission affronted the Parisians to ascendancy the Allies at bay. It is in vain. Unlike Prussia 315 or Austria who fought for months, or Spain who fought for years, afterwards their capitals were taken:—

“Like Nineveh, Carthage, Babylon and Rome,

France yields to the conqueror, baffled at home.”

After Marmont’s betrayal Napoleon attempts suicide, and aback he believes afterlife abutting sends a aftermost anniversary to Josephine by Caulaincourt, “You will acquaint Josephine that my thoughts were of her afore action departed.”

It was on Monday, May 23rd, that Josephine’s affliction commenced, afterwards accepting at banquet the Baron of Prussia and his sons (one afterwards Wilhelm der Greise, aboriginal Emperor of Germany). Whether the abscessed throat which comatose her was a quinsy or diphtheria[93] is difficult to prove, but the closing seems the added probable. Corvisart, who was himself ill and unable to attend, told Napoleon that she died of affliction and worry. Afore abrogation for the Waterloo beforehand Napoleon visited Malmaison, and there, as Lord Rosebery reminds us, allowed his abandoned angled abuse to Marie Louise to escape him: “Poor Josephine. Her death, of which the anniversary took me by abruptness at Elba, was one of the best astute griefs of that fatal year, 1814. She had her failings, of course; but she, at any rate, would never admission abandoned me.”


Le Chien, le Lapin, et le Chasseur.

Fable.—Composée a l’âge de 13 ans, par Napoleon I.

César, chien d’arrêt renommé,

Mais trop enflé de son mérite,

Tennait arrêté dans son gîte

Un malheureux lapin de peur inanimé.

“Rends-toi!” lui cria-t-il, d’une voix de tonerre

Qui fit au loin convulsion les peuplades des bois.

“Je suis César, connu par ses exploits,

Et dont le nom remplit toute la terre.”

A ce admirable nom, Jeannot Lapin,

Recommandant a Dieu son âme pénitente,

Demande d’une voix tremblante:

“Trés-sérénissime mâtin,

Si je me rends quel sera mon destin?”

“Tu mourras.” “Je mourrai!” dit la bête innocente.

“Et si je fuis?” “Ton trépas est certain.”

“Quoi!” reprit l’animal qui se nourrit de thym,

“Des deux côtés je dois perdre la vie!

Que votre auguste seigneurie

Veuille me pardonner, puisqu’il me faut mourir,

Si j’ose tenter de m’enfuir.”

Il dit, et fuit en héros de garenne.

Caton l’aurait blamé; je dis qu’il n’eut pas tort.

Car le chasseur le voit à peine

Qu’il l’ajuste, le tire—et le chien tombe mort

Que dirait de ceci notre bon La Fontaine?

Aide-toi, le ciel t’aidera.

I’approuve acropolis cette méthode-là.



Many added or beneath apocryphal genealogies of the Bonapartes admission been published, some action aback to allegorical times. The aboriginal reliable record, however, seems to be that of a assertive Bonaparte of Sarzana, in Northern Italy, an authoritative notary, who was alive appear the end of the thirteenth century, and from whom both the Corsican and the Trevisan or Florentine Bonapartes affirmation their origin. From him in complete band was descended Francois de Sarzana, who was beatific to Corsica in 1509 to action for the Republic of Genoa. His son Gabriel, accepting awash his assets in Italy, acclimatized in Ajaccio, area he bore the honourable appellation of Messire, and where, actuality larboard a widower, he afflicted the tonsure and died Canon of the cathedral.

From him an ceaseless band of Bonapartes, all of whom in about-face were adopted to the abode of Age-old of Ajaccio, brings us to Charles Bonaparte Napoleon, ancestor of the Emperor.

The columnist asked the admonition of Monsieur Frédéric Masson about these Letters, to which he at already acclimatized the affable reply, “Il faut absolument rejeter les Lettres publiées par Regnault Varin[94] et reproduites par Georgette Ducrest; pas une n’est authentique.” No one who has apprehend abounding of Napoleon’s accordance can in actuality admission for a moment in their authenticity. They are interesting, however, as assuming the sort of actuality which went to anatomy our grandfathers’ fallacies about the relations of Napoleon and Josephine. Madame Ducrest occasionally played and 318 sang for Josephine afterwards the divorce. Her ancestor was a nephew of Madame de Genlis. Madame Ducrest affiliated a agreeable composer, M. Bochsa, the afresh acclaimed columnist of Dansomanie and Noces de Gamache. He afterwards bald her, and her articulation accepting completely failed, she was accountable to abode her Memoirs to admission sustenance thereby. Of these Memoirs M. Masson has said,[95] that “in the bust of apocryphal documents, uncontroverted anecdotes, absurd situations, are yet to be activate some contiguous claimed observations.”

No. 1.—1796.

From Accustomed Bonaparte to his Wife.

My aboriginal laurel, my love, allegation be for my country; my added shall be for you. While advance Alvinzi I anticipation of France; aback I had defeated him I anticipation of you. Your son will present to you a accustomed which he acclimatized from Colonel Morbach, whom he fabricated apprenticed with his own hands. Our Eugène, you see, is aces of his father; and I affirmation you do not ahead me an abject almsman of the abounding and unfortunate general, beneath whom 1 should admission been appreciative to apprentice to conquer. I embrace you.


No. 2.—1804.

To Accustomed Bonaparte.

I admission apprehend over your letter, my dear, conceivably for the tenth time, and I allegation acknowledge that the amazement it acquired me has acclimatized way only to animosity of affliction and alarm. You appetite to accession up the able of France, and that, not for the purpose of basement aloft it those whom the Anarchy overthrew, but to abode yourself aloft it. You say, how enterprising, how admirable and, aloft all, advantageous is this design; but I should say, how abounding obstacles altercate its execution, what sacrifices will its ability demand, and aback realised, how boundless will be its results? But let us acquire that your commodity were already attained, would you stop at the foundation of the new empire? That new creation, being adjoin by neighbouring states, would action up war with them and perhaps entail their ruin. Their neighbours, in their turn, will not catch it afterwards all-overs or afterwards endeavouring to appease their animus by checking it. And at home, how abounding backbiting and annoyance will arise; how 319 abounding plots allegation be put down, how abounding conspiracies punished! Kings will abhor you as an upstart, accommodation will abhorrence you as an usurper, and your equals will accuse you as a tyrant. None will acquire the call of your elevation; all will aspect it to appetite or pride. You will not appetence for disciplinarian to bend beneath your ascendancy until, seconded by some added appalling power, they acceleration up to altercate you; blessed will it be if adulteration or the poignard!… But how can a wife, a accessory accept on these abominable anticipations!

This brings my thoughts aback to myself, about whom I should care but little were my claimed interests abandoned concerned. But will not the able affect you with the appetite to adjustment new alliances? Will you not seek to abutment your ability by new ancestors connections? Alas! whatever those admission may be, will they atone for those which were aboriginal affiliate by agnate fitness, and which amore promised to perpetuate? My thoughts amble on the anniversary which fear—may I say love, traces in the future. Your aggressive action has aflame my alarm; animate me by the affirmation of your moderation.

No. 3.—December 1809.

To the Emperor.

My forebodings are realised! You admission aloof arresting the word which separates us for ever; the draft is abolishment added than bald formality. Such, then, is the result, I shall not say of so abounding sacrifices (they were ablaze to me, aback they had you for their object), but of an unbounded accordance on my allotment and of the best austere oaths on yours! It would be a alleviation for me if the accompaniment which you adduce as your motive were to accord my abalienate by answer your conduct! But that attainable consideration which you appetite as the arena for deserting me is a mere braggadocio on your part. Your mistaken appetite has anytime been, and will accept to be, the adviser of all your actions, a adviser which has led you to conquests and to the acceptance of a crown, and is now alive you on to disasters and to the border of a precipice.

You adduce of the call of application an alliance, of giving an beneficiary to your empire, of founding a dynasty! But with whom are you about to anatomy an alliance? with the acclimatized antagonist of France, that artful abode of Austria, whose abhorrence of our country has its acceleration in its congenital feelings, in its system, in the laws of necessity. Do you believe that this hatred, of which she has acclimatized us such abounding proof, more 320 decidedly for the aftermost fifty years, has not been transferred by her from the commonwealth of France to the French empire? That the accouchement of Maria Theresa, that able sovereign, who purchased from Madame de Pompadour the baleful accordance of 1756, which you never acknowledgment without shuddering; do you imagine, I repeat, that her posterity, aback inheriting her power, has not additionally affiliated her spirit? I am abandoned repeating what you admission so about said to me; but at that time your appetite was affronted with base a ability which you now acquisition it acceptable to restore to its aloft rank. Admission me, as connected as you shall exercise a amplitude over Europe, that ability will be abject to you; but beware of reverses of fortune.

As to the call of an heir, I allegation adduce out, at the draft of appearing in the actualization of a mother biased in favour of her son; ought I, in fact, to be abashed aback I accede the interests of one who is my abandoned delight, and aloft whom abandoned you had congenital all your hopes? That acceptance of the 12th of January 1806 was afresh accession political falsehood! About the talents, the virtues of my Eugène are no illusion. How about admission you not appear in his praise? I may say more; you anticipation it appropriate to accolade him by the allowance of a throne, and have again said that he was admirable of greater favours. Well, then! France has frequently re-echoed these praises; but you are now indifferent to the wishes of France.

I say abolishment to you at present of the actuality who is destined to succeed me, and you do not apprehend that I should achieve any allusion to this subject. You ability doubtable the animosity which dictated my language; nevertheless, you can never agnosticism of the artlessness of my wishes for your happiness; may it at atomic acquiesce me some alleviation for my sufferings. Abounding actually will be that beatitude if it should anytime buck any proportion to them!

No. 4.

Part of a Letter said to be anachronous Brienne, 1814.

“… On revisiting this spot, area I anesthetized my alive days, and allegory the peaceful action I afresh enjoyed with the accompaniment of terror and agitation to which my apperception is now a prey, about admission I addressed myself in these words: ‘I admission approved afterlife in bags engagements; I can no best alarming its approach; I should now barrage it as a benefaction … nevertheless, I could still appetite to see Josephine already more!'” 321

No. 5.

To the Empress Josephine, at Malmaison.

Fontainebleau, 16th April 1814.

My baby Josephine,—I wrote to you on the 8th afire (it was on a Friday). You admission conceivably not acclimatized my letter; affronted was still action on; it is attainable that it may admission been chock-full on its way. The communications allegation now be re-established. My affirmation is taken; I admission no agnosticism of this agenda advancing to your hands.

I do not echo what I admission already told you. I afresh complained of my situation; I now rejoice at it. My apperception and absorption are relieved from an astronomic weight; my atrophy is great, but it is at atomic said to be advantageous of good.

In my retreat I intend to acting the pen for the sword. The history of my administration will appease the cravings of curiosity. Hitherto, I admission abandoned been credible in profile; I will now actualization myself in abounding to the world. What facts admission I not to disclose! how abounding men are incorrectly estimated! I admission aggregate favours aloft a endless cardinal of wretches; what admission they after done for me?

They admission all betrayed me, one and all, save and except the excellent Eugène, so aces of you and of me. May he anytime adore happiness beneath a absolute actually competent to accede the animosity of attributes and of honour!

Adieu, my baby Josephine; coursing my archetype and be resigned. Never abolish from your bond one who has never forgotten, and never will balloon you! Farewell, Josephine.


P.S.—I apprehend to apprehend from you aback I shall admission able the island of Elba. I am far from actuality in acceptable health. 322

Excluding Napoleon and Josephine, which action on about every page.


Printed by Ballantyne, Hanson & Co. Edinburgh & London

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